domestic and international sources for infrastructure development in commercially viable
      projects, both greenfield and brownfield, including stalled projects.
      Relevant Website: www.niifindia.in
      International Investment Treaties and Framework
           India initiated the exercise to negotiate and enter into Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs)/
      Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements (BIPAs) with other countries as a
      part of the comprehensive economic reforms programme which was initiated in 1991. A BIT is
      essentially an international treaty which increases the comfort level and boosts the confidence of
      the investors by assuring a minimum standard of treatment and non-discrimination in all matters
      while providing for an independent forum for dispute settlement through arbitration. In turn,
      BITs are expected to project India as an attractive foreign direct investment (FDI) destination as
      well as protect outbound Indian FDI abroad.
           Due to considerable socio-economic changes which have taken place since 1993, it was felt
      that there was a need for closer examination of the entire gamut of issues associated with BITs
      and also investment chapter of CECAs/CEPAs/ Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). The new Indian
      Model BIT of 2015 aims to provide appropriate protection to foreign investors in India and
      Indian investors in the foreign country, in the light of relevant international precedents and
      practices.
      Department of Expenditure
           The Department of Expenditure is the nodal Department for overseeing the public financial
      management system in the central government and matters connected with state finances. It is
      responsible for the implementation of the recommendations of the Finance Commission and
      Central Pay Commission, monitoring of audit comments/ observations, preparation of central
      government accounts. It further assists central ministries/ departments in controlling the costs
      and prices of public services, reviewing system and procedure to optimize outputs and outcomes
      of public expenditure. The principal activities of the Department include overseeing the
      expenditure management in the central ministries/ departments through the interface of the
      Financial Rules/ regulations/ orders, pre-sanction appraisal of major schemes/ projects, handling
      bulk of the central budgetary resources transferred to state.
           The Personnel and Establishment Division is responsible for administration of various
      financial rules and regulations like General Financial Rules (GFRs), Delegation of Financial
      Power Rules (DFPRs), etc., including those relating to personnel matters of central government
      employees such as regulation of pay and allowances, policy matters on pension, and staffing of
      government establishments by creation and upgradation of posts, as also cadre reviews.
      Relevant Website: www.doe.gov.in
      Controller General of Accounts
           The Controller General of Accounts (CGA), in the Department of Expenditure, is the
      Principal Accounting Adviser to Government of India and is responsible for establishing and
      maintaining a technically sound Management Accounting System. The Office of CGA prepares
      monthly and annual analysis of expenditure, revenues, borrowings and various fiscal indicators
      for the Union Government. Under Article 150 of the Constitution, the Annual Appropriation