loans granted by them, with tenure exceeding 10 years or any other mode approved by the
            iii.) Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDFs): Government of India has conceptualized
      Infrastructure Debt Funds (IDFs) to accelerate and enhance the flow of long term debt into
      infrastructure projects to help in the migration of project loans for operating assets from banks to
      the fixed income markets.
            iv.) Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)/Infrastructure Investment Trust (InvITs): These
      are trust-based structures that maximize returns through efficient tax pass-through and improved
      governance structures. Guidelines/Regulations for InvIT and REIT were notified by SEBI in
      Public Private Partnerships
            Availability of quality infrastructure is a pre-requisite to achieve broad based and inclusive
      growth on a sustained basis. Infrastructure is also critical for enhancing productivity and export
      competitiveness. Given the enormity of the investment requirements and the limited availability
      of public resources for investment in physical infrastructure, the projected infrastructure
      investments made it imperative to explore avenues for increasing investments in infrastructure
      through a combination of public investment and Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). PPPs bridge
      the deficit in financing of infrastructure projects, and also bring in cost effective new technology
      for operation and maintenance of created asset, thus, extracting long term value for proposition.
      India systematically rolled out a PPP programme for the delivery of high-priority public utilities
      and infrastructure and, over the last decade or so, developed what is perhaps one of the largest
      Programme in the world.
      Information Dissemination
            DEA maintains a website dedicated to PPPs,, to provide
      information related to PPP initiatives in the country. The website serves as a hub of information
      on PPP initiatives and contains related policy documents, government guidelines issued for main
      streaming PPPs. These include information on the institutional mechanisms for speedy appraisal
      of PPP infrastructure projects and the schemes for financial support to PPP projects. The website
      also contains various knowledge products developed in the PPP cell, sharing PPP best practices
      to enhance the ability of the public officials as well as private developers to implement PPP
      projects. is a database of infrastructure projects including PPPs
      being implemented across the sectors in India. It provides key information on the status of
      infrastructure projects being executed by government as well as the private sector.
            The G20 was formed in 1999, as a forum of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors,
      in recognition of the fact that there was a major shift in the global economic weight from the
      advanced economies to emerging market economies. The gradually declining role of G8 as
      world’s economic coordinator and the increasing clout of EMEs in global deliberations on
      economic governance resulted in G20 replacing G8 in 1999. However, G20 rose into true
      prominence in 2008 when it was elevated from a forum of Finance Ministers and Central Bank
      Governors to that of the G20 Heads of Nations in order to effectively respond to the global
      financial crisis of 2007-2010.