The ozone layer absorbs all the harmful UV-B radiations emanating from the sun. It protects
      plant and animal life from UV-B radiation. The UV-B radiation has the potential to cause skin
      cancer, eye cataract, suppress body’s immune system, decrease crop yield etc., which led to the
      adoption of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985 and the
      Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The mandate of the
      Montreal Protocol is to phase out the production and consumption of the Ozone Depleting
      Substances (ODSs). India is a party to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone
      Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and its all
      amendments/adjustments. The MoEF&CC has set up the Ozone Cell as a National Ozone Unit
      (NOU) to render necessary services for effective and timely implementation of the protocol and
      its ODs phase-out programme in India.
      Vienna Convention
            The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on
      Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer are the international treaties specific for the protection
      of the Stratospheric Ozone (Ozone layer). The Montreal Protocol has been recognized as the
      most successful international environmental treaty in history. It has been universally ratified and
      all the 197 UN member countries of the world are the parties to the Vienna Convention and its
      Montreal Protocol. In the 29 years of operation of the Montreal Protocol, extraordinary
      international cooperation under this agreement has led to phase-out of production and
      consumption of several major ODSs such as CFCs, CTC and halons globally from 2010.
      United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
            The concern for arresting and reversing land degradation and desertification gets reflected in
      many of the national policies (for e.g., National Water Policy 2012; National Forest Policy 1988;
      National Agricultural Policy 2000; Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; Environment (Protection)
      Act, 1986, National Environmental Policy, 2006; National Policy for Farmers, 2007; National
      Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA)-2007 which have enabling provisions for addressing these
      problems. It is also implicit in the coals of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), Sustainable
      Agriculture, Sustainable Land Management (SLM) and the overarching goal of Sustainable
      development which the country has been pursuing. India became a signatory to the United
      Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in 1994. MoEF&CC is the nodal
      Ministry in the government of India for the UNCCD, and Desertification cell is the nodal point
      within MoEF&CC to co-ordinate all issues pertaining to the convention.
      International Cooperation and Sustainable Development
            International Cooperation and Sustainable Development (IC&SD) Division of the Ministry
      coordinates matters related to international environmental cooperation and sustainable
      development including Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
      United Nations Environment Programme
            India is a member of UNEP and provides annual financial contribution of USD 100,000 to
      UNEP Environment Fund. Three of the thirty three members on UNEP’s International Resource
      Panel (IRP) are currently from India. The Ministry is a member of the IRP Steering Committee.
      IRP supports UNEP’s Resource Efficiency/Sustainable consumption and Production (SCP) sub-