improving eco-system services; b) ecosystem restoration and increase in forest cover; c)
agroforestry and social forestry; d) promoting alternative fuel energy.
Declaring Eco-Sensitive Areas in Western Ghats
The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and a treasure trove of biological
diversity harbouring many endemic species of flowering plants, fishes, amphibians, reptiles,
birds, mammals and invertebrates. It is also the origin of Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery and a
number of other rivers of Peninsular India, upon which much of the economy of the region is
dependent. Therefore, there is a need to conserve and protect the unique biodiversity of Western
Ghats, while allowing for sustainable and inclusive development of the region. The concept of
Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) provides a mechanism to conserve biological diversity of an
area while allowing for sustainable development to take place.
National Natural Resources Management System
The Scheme “National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS)” of the Ministry
is a part of an umbrella scheme of the erstwhile Planning Commission-Planning Committee-
National Natural Resources Management System (PC-NNRMS) and is in operation since, 1985.
The prime objective of PCNNRMS is utilization of remote sensing technology for
inventorization, assessment and monitoring of country’s natural resources.
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, (ICFRE), an apex body in
the national forestry research system, has been undertaking the holistic development of forestry
research, education and extension covering all aspects of forestry. The Council deals with
solution based forestry research in tune with the emerging issues in the sector, including global
concerns such as climate change, conservation of biological diversity, combating desertification
and sustainable management and development of resources. Major institutes engaged in forest
research include: Forest Research Institute Dehradun; Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree
Breeding, Coimbatore; Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bengaluru; Tropical Forest
Research Institute, Jabalpur; Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat; Arid Forest Research
Institute, Jodhpur; Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla; Institute of Forest Productivity,
Ranchi; Institute of Forest Biodiversity, Hyderabad.
Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy
The Academy was constituted in 1987 by upgrading and renaming the erstwhile Indian
Forest College, established in 1938. The Academy imparts professional training to the Indian
Forest Services (IFS) Probationers and has been accorded the status of “Staff College” for
imparting mid-career training for officers of the Indian Forest Service (IFS). The mandate of the
Academy is to impart training to IFS Probationers by way of knowledge and skills to the
professional foresters and help them to develop competence for managing the country’s forest
and wildlife resources on a sustainable basis, besides enabling them to act as catalysts for
environmental protection, economic development and social change. Its capacity building
programmes include training the new entrants to the service, in-service training (Mid Career
training programme) to contemporary batches of IFS officers, skills upgradation training to