improving eco-system services; b) ecosystem restoration and increase in forest cover; c)
      agroforestry and social forestry; d) promoting alternative fuel energy.
      Declaring Eco-Sensitive Areas in Western Ghats
            The Western Ghats is a global biodiversity hotspot and a treasure trove of biological
      diversity harbouring many endemic species of flowering plants, fishes, amphibians, reptiles,
      birds, mammals and invertebrates. It is also the origin of Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery and a
      number of other rivers of Peninsular India, upon which much of the economy of the region is
      dependent. Therefore, there is a need to conserve and protect the unique biodiversity of Western
      Ghats, while allowing for sustainable and inclusive development of the region. The concept of
      Ecologically Sensitive Area (ESA) provides a mechanism to conserve biological diversity of an
      area while allowing for sustainable development to take place.
      National Natural Resources Management System
            The Scheme “National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS)” of the Ministry
      is a part of an umbrella scheme of the erstwhile Planning Commission-Planning Committee-
      National Natural Resources Management System (PC-NNRMS) and is in operation since, 1985.
      The prime objective of PCNNRMS is utilization of remote sensing technology for
      inventorization, assessment and monitoring of country’s natural resources.
      Forestry Research
      Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
            Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, (ICFRE), an apex body in
      the national forestry research system, has been undertaking the holistic development of forestry
      research, education and extension covering all aspects of forestry. The Council deals with
      solution based forestry research in tune with the emerging issues in the sector, including global
      concerns such as climate change, conservation of biological diversity, combating desertification
      and sustainable management and development of resources. Major institutes engaged in forest
      research include: Forest Research Institute Dehradun; Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree
      Breeding, Coimbatore; Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bengaluru; Tropical Forest
      Research Institute, Jabalpur; Rain Forest Research Institute, Jorhat; Arid Forest Research
      Institute, Jodhpur; Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Shimla; Institute of Forest Productivity,
      Ranchi; Institute of Forest Biodiversity, Hyderabad.
      Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy
            The Academy was constituted in 1987 by upgrading and renaming the erstwhile Indian
      Forest College, established in 1938. The Academy imparts professional training to the Indian
      Forest Services (IFS) Probationers and has been accorded the status of “Staff College” for
      imparting mid-career training for officers of the Indian Forest Service (IFS). The mandate of the
      Academy is to impart training to IFS Probationers by way of knowledge and skills to the
      professional foresters and help them to develop competence for managing the country’s forest
      and wildlife resources on a sustainable basis, besides enabling them to act as catalysts for
      environmental protection, economic development and social change. Its capacity building
      programmes include training the new entrants to the service, in-service training (Mid Career
      training programme) to contemporary batches of IFS officers, skills upgradation training to