communities; sponsor research and extension of findings to disseminate new and proper
      technologies for the regeneration and development of degraded forest areas and adjoining lands;
      create general awareness and help foster a people’s movement for promoting afforestation and
      eco-development with the assistance of voluntary agencies, non-governmental organizations,
      panchayati raj institutions and others and promote participatory and sustainable management of
      degraded forest areas and adjoining lands.
      National Afforestation Programme Scheme
            National Afforestation Programme (NAP) is a major afforestation scheme of the NAEB in
      the Government of India. Launched in 2000-02, the scheme has acquired a pan India ambit over
      the last nine years of its implementation and was being implemented by 28 states of the country
      through a twin institutional set up of Forest Development Agencies (FDAs) at the forest division
      level and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at the village level. From 2010-11,
      State Forest Development Agency (SFDA) were constituted at the state level to smoothen the
      fund flow to the FDAs. The programme is now implemented through a three tier system of State
      Forests Development Agency (SFDA) at the state level, Forest Development Agency (FDAs) at
      the district/forest division level and Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs) at the village
      level. Under Entry Point Activities, community assets are created with a ‘care and share’
      concept. The objectives of the scheme include: protection and conservation of natural resources
      through active involvement of the people; checking land degradation, deforestation and loss of
      biodiversity; ecological restoration and environmental conservation and eco-development;
      evolving village level people’s organization which can manage the natural resources in and
      around villages in a sustainable manner; capability endowment and skill enhancement for
      improving employability of the rural people.
      Eco-Development Forces Scheme
            Eco-Development Forces (EDF) Scheme was established in 1980s as a scheme being
      implemented through Ministry of Defence for ecological restoration of terrains, rendered
      difficult either due to severe degradation or remote location or difficult law and order situation. It
      is based on twin objectives of ecological regeneration in difficult areas, and promotion of
      meaningful employment to ex-servicemen.
            Under this scheme, the establishment and operational expenditure on the Eco Task Force
      (ETF) Battalions raised by Ministry of Defence is reimbursed by Ministry of Environment,
      Forest and Climate Change while the inputs like sapling, fencing, etc., and also the professional
      and managerial guidance is provided by the state forest departments.
      National Mission for Green India
            The National Mission for a Green India (GIM), one of the eight missions under the National
      Action Plan on Climate Change aims at protecting and enhancing India’s diminishing forest
      cover to counter the perils of climate change. It envisages a holistic view of greening and focuses
      on multiple ecosystem services along with carbon sequestration and emission reduction as co-
      benefit.
            The Mission embarks on meeting the challenge of climate change adapation and mitigation
      through sub-missions and a cross-cutting intervention: a) enhancing quality of forest cover and