will apply to everyone who generates construction and demolition waste-building materials,
      debris, and rubble waste from construction, re-modelling, repair and demolition of any civil
      structure of individual or organisation or authority. Under the rules every waste generator has
      been made responsible for collection, segregation of concrete, soil and others and storage of
      construction and demolition waste generated separately, deposit at collection centre so made by
      the local body or handover it to the authorised processing facilities, ensure that there is no
      littering or deposition so as to prevent obstruction to the traffic or the public or drains. The
      service providers are required to prepare a comprehensive waste management plan covering
      segregation, storage, collection, reuse, recycling, transportation and disposal of construction and
      demolition waste generated within their jurisdiction. They are also responsible for removal of all
      construction and demolition waste.
      Fly Ash Utilization
            The fast-increasing demand of power coupled with its dependence on coal for about 2/3rd of
      its energy requirement is leading to generation of large volume of fly ash. The management of
      fly ash has been a matter of concern in view of requirement of large are of land for its disposal.
      To address the environmental problems of fly ash disposal, the Ministry issued notification on
      fly ash utilization in 1999 prescribing the targets for the fly ash utilization for coal/lignite power
      based thermal power stations with the aim to achieve 100 per cent utilization in phased manner.
      The notification was amended in 2003, 2009 and recently in 2016. The utilization of fly ash has
      increased from 6.64 million ton in 1996-97 to a level of 107.77 million ton in 2015-16. Fly ash
      earlier considered to be “hazardous industrial waste” material, is now considered to be useful and
      saleable commodity. The objectives of this notification are to protect environment, conserve the
      top soil, prevent dumping of fly ash from thermal power stations on land and to promote
      utilization of ash in the manufacture of building materials and construction activity.
      International Conventions
      Basel Convention
            The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
      and their Disposal was adopted in 1989 in Basel, Switzerland. The overarching objective of the
      Basel Convention is to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of
      hazardous wastes. Its scope of application covers a wide range of wastes defined as “hazardous
      wastes” based on their origin and/or composition and their characteristics, as well as two types of
      wastes defined as “other wastes” (household waste and incinerator ash).
      Rotterdam Convention
            The Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain Hazardous
      Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade came into force in 2004. India acceded to the
      convention a year later. The Designated National authorities (DNAs) for India are in Ministry of
      Agriculture and Cooperation. The Official Contact Points (OCPs) are designated in Ministry of
      Environment, Forest and Climate Change. There are 47 chemicals listed in Annex III to this
      Convention, which include 33 pesticides and 14 industrial chemicals that have been banned or
      severely restricted for health or environmental reasons by two or more parties and which the
      Conference of the Parties (COPs) has decided to subject to the Prior Informed Consent (PIC)
      procedure.