years. The new rules are now applicable beyond municipal areas and extend to urban
      agglomerations, census towns, notified industrial townships, areas under the control of Indian
      Railways, airports, airbase, port and harbour, defence establishments, special economic zones,
      state and central government organizations, places of pilgrimage, religious and historical
      importance. The segregation of waste at source has been mandated. Responsibilities of
      generators have been fixed for segregation of waste in to three streams, wet (biodegradable), dry
      (plastic, paper, metal, wood, etc.) and domestic hazardous wastes (diapers, napkins, empty
      containers of cleaning agents, mosquito repellents, etc.) The Rules provide ways for integration
      of waste pickers/rag pickers. The Rules mandate local bodies to frame their bye-laws to impose
      ‘User Fee’, to be paid by the generator to waste collector and for ‘Spot Fine’ for littering and
      non-segregation. The concept of partnership as envisaged under Swachh Bharat has been
      introduced viz., bulk and institutional generators, market associations, event organizers and
      hotels and restaurants have been directly made responsible for waste segregation and
      management in partnership with local bodies. All resident welfare and market associations, gated
      communities and institution with an area >5,000 sq.m. new townships and group housing
      societies have been made responsible to develop in-house waste handling, and processing
      arrangements for bio-degradable waste.
      Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016
            It is known fact that plastic has multiple uses and the physical and chemical properties lead
      to their commercial success but inevitably their indiscriminate disposal has become a major
      threat to the environment. In particular, the plastic carry bags are the biggest contributors of the
      littered waste and every year, millions of plastic bags end up in the environment vis-a-vis soil,
      water bodies, water courses, and it takes an average of one thousand years to decompose
      completely. Therefore, to address the issue of scientific plastic waste management, new
      regulations namely, the Plastic Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011 were notified in
      2011 which included plastic waste management. However, the implementation of these rules was
      not so effective because their ambit was limited to notified municipal areas whereas today, the
      plastic has reached our rural areas also. To address these issues and with an objective to set up
      self-sustainable waste management system, the Ministry notified the Plastic Waste Management
      Rules, 2016. The Rules provide for: (i) increase in minimum thickness of plastic carry bags from
      40 to 50 microns, (ii) first time cover and stipulate minimum thickness of 50 microns for plastic
      sheets being used for packaging and wrapping commodities to facilitate collection and recycle of
      plastic waste, (iii) revamped pricing mechanisms for plastic carry bags by introducing plastic
      waste management fee to be paid by retailers/street vendors willing to provide carry bags as pre-
      registration charge, (iv) ways and means to promote gainful utilization of plastic waste such as
      energy recovery, in road construction, etc. (v) introducing user charge and spot fines by local
      authority.
      Construction & Demolition Waste Management, 2016
            The Ministry for the first time notified the separate set of rules for management of
      construction and demolition waste in the country as Construction and Demolition Management
      Rules, 2016. Prior to these Rules, this was regulated under the Municipal Solid Waste
      Management Rules, 2000 and was left at the desecration of the urban local bodies. The new rules
      regulate waste generated from construction, re-modelling, repair and demolition of any civil
      structure and make a way forward to reuse, recycle such waste in gainful manner. The new rules