last five years. PM10 are inhalable coarse particles, which are particles with a diameter between
      2.5 and 10 micrometers (um) and PM 2.5 are fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 um or less.
            Generally, for young and healthy people, moderate air pollution levels are unlikely to have
      any serious short term effects. However, elevated levels and/or long term exposure to air
      pollution can lead to symptoms and conditions affecting human health. This mainly affects the
      respiratory and inflammatory systems, but can also lead to more serious conditions such as heart
      disease. People with lung or heart conditions may be more susceptible to the effects of air
      Measures to Combat Air Pollution
            National Ambient Air Quality Standards envisaging 12 pollutants have been notified under
      the EPA, 1986 along with 115 emission/effluent standards for 104 different sectors of industries,
      besides 32 general standards. Government is executing a nation-wide programme of ambient air
      quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The
      network consists of six hundred and ninety-one manual operating stations covering three hundred
      and three cities/towns in twenty-nine states and four union territories. With reference to vehicular
      pollution the steps taken include introduction of cleaner/ alternate fuels like gaseous fuel (CNG,
      LPG, etc.) ethanol blending, universalization of BS-IV by 2017; leapfrogging from BS-IV to BS-
      VI fuel standards by 1st April, 2020; on going promotion of public transport network of metro,
      buses, e-rickshaws and promotion of carpooling, streamlining granting of Pollution Under
      Control Certificate, lane discipline, vehicle maintenance, etc.
            National Air Quality Index (AQI) was launched in 2015 starting with 14 cities and then
      extended to 34. A Graded Response Action Plan for control of air pollution in Delhi and NCR
      region has been notified. This plan specifies actions required for controlling particulate matter
      )PM emissions from various sources) and prevent PM 10 and PM 2.5 levels to go beyond
      ‘moderate’ national Air Quality Index (AQI) category. The measures are cumulative. Emergency
      and severe levels include cumulatively all other measures listed in the lower levels and AQI
      including very poor, poor and moderate. Actions listed in the poor to moderate category need to
      be implemented though out the year. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has issued a
      comprehensive set of directions for implementation of 42 measures to mitigate air pollution in
      major cities including Delhi and NCR. In order to involve people in the efforts, Government
      launched a campaign called ‘Harit Diwali and Swasth Diwali’ in 2017 involving over 200
      schools in Delhi and over two lakh schools in the country. A mini marathon for ‘Swachh Hawa
      for Swachh and Swasth Bharat’ was also organised in 2017.
      Noise Pollution
            As a follow-up of Section 5.2.8 (IV) of National Environmental Policy (NEP)-2006,
      ambient noise has been included as a regular parameter for monitoring in specified urban areas.
      Protocol for National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network Programme has been prepared and
      circulated to state pollution control boards. Central Pollution Control Board in association with
      state pollution control boards established Real Time National Ambient Noise Monitoring
      Network in 7 metropolitan cities and installed 70 noise monitoring system in Mumbai, Delhi,
      Kolkata, Chennai, Bengaluru, Lucknow and Hyderabad. The steps taken to reduce noise
      pollution, inter alia, include advisories for noise monitoring on the occasion of Diwali;
      prohibition of the use of fireworks between 10.00 p.m. and 06.00 a.m.; publicity regarding the ill
      effects of fire crackers, sensitisation of students through course curriculum besides general