diversity; identification and advisory services; National Designated Repository of type and
      voucher specimens; supporting enforcement of Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972; establishment of
      marine aquaria and Museum for awareness on conservation etc., and acts as a custodian of the
      National Zoological Collections. Headquarters are at Kolkata and 16 Regional centres are located
      at different parts of the country.
      Forest Survey of India
            Forest Survey of India (FSI), a national level organization under the Ministry is engaged in
      the assessment of the country’s forest resources on a regular interval. Established in 1981, the
      Forest Survey of India succeeded the “Pre-investment Survey of Forest Resources” (PISFR), a
      project initiated in 1965 by Government of India with the sponsorship of FAO and UNDP. The
      main objective of PISFR was to ascertain the availability of raw material for establishment of
      wood based industries in selected areas of the country. In its report in 1976, the National
      Commission on Agriculture (NCA) recommended the creation of a National Forest Survey
      Organization for collection of reliable data through countrywide comprehensive forest resources
      survey at regular intervals. Consequently, PISFER was reorganized into FSI in June, 1981. After
      a critical review of activities, the mandate of FSI was refined in 1986 in order to make it more
      relevant to the rapidly changing needs and aspirations of the country.
      Biodiversity Conservation
            The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is one of the key agreements adopted during
      the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The objective of CBD are: conservation of
      biological diversity, sustainable use of its components, and fair and equitable sharing of benefits
      arising out of the use of genetic resources. Pursuant to the ratification of the CBD by India in
      1994, several steps were initiated to meet the commitments under the Convention, and to realize
      the opportunities offered by the Convention. These efforts were aimed at bringing the legislative,
      administrative and policy regimes in tune with the three-fold objectives of the CBD. India
      enacted the Biological Diversity (BD) Act in 2002 to give effect to the provision of this
      Convention. India also prepared a National Biodiversity Action Plan (NBAP) in 2008, and an
      Addendum to NBAP in 2014 with 20 national targets on biodiversity.
            The Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing (ABS) adopted under the aegis of CBD
      in 2010, is aimed at fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic
      resources.
      Biosphere Reserves
            The idea of ‘Biosphere Reserves’ was initiated by UNESCO in 1973-74 under its Man and
      Biosphere (MAB) Programme. The MAB, launched in 1970 by UNESCO, is a broad based
      ecological programme aimed to develop within the natural and social sciences a basis for the
      rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the
      relationship between man and the environment, to predict the consequences of today’s actions on
      tomorrows world and thereby to increase man’s ability to manage efficiently the natural
      resources of the biosphere.
            The Indian National Man and Biosphere (MAB) Committee identifies and recommends
      potential sites for designation as Biosphere Reserves, following the UNESCO’s guidelines and