Khammam and Chittoor of undivided Andhra Pradesh during 2012-13. Encouraged by the
outcome, the Department had issued guidelines in 2014 for conducting of social audit. So far 13
states viz., Bihar, Maharashtra, Odisha, Karnataka, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Nagaland,
Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Rajasthan, Mizoram and Tamil Nadu have completed the conduct
of social audit.
Higher and Technical Education
There has been phenomenal growth of higher education in India since independence. There
were only 20 universities and 500 colleges at the time of independence which have increased by
38 times (i.e., 760) in the case of the universities and 77 times (i.e. 38,498) in the case of
colleges. Similarly, there has been tremendous growth in the enrolment also. Moreover, the
statistical overview of the higher education system clearly shows that there has been phenomenal
growth in institutions (universities, colleges, technical institutions) as well as in intake,
National Institutional Ranking Framework
The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) for educational institutions was
launched to meet a felt need for a framework that would enable parents, students, teachers,
educational institutions and other stakeholders to rank institutions on the basis of a set of
objective parameters and a transparent process. Developed by a team of experts in education and
heads of institutions, the portal and the framework is presently available for engineering and
Impacting Research Innovation and Technology
To identify the needs of the country in terms of its research and technology requirements,
ten goal posts have been identified and research groups are being set up to formulate time-bound
plans of action for each. Leading academic institutions like IITs and ISC have been identified to
set the process in motion.
Lots of private institutions have come up in higher education sector with the growing trend
of commercialization. They sometimes are not maintaining the laid down standards. UGC’s
entire functioning continues to be oriented more towards grant giving rather than regulation and
enforcement of minimum standards. A UGC Review Committee was constituted in 2014. A
similar committee was constituted for the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).
The Committee is to conduct a review of the present status of AICTE and suggest restructuring
and reorganizing of AICTE for attaining even better performance to meet the desired objectives.
Bachelor of Vocational Studies
The UGC has introduced the scheme for B.Voc degree with multiple exits at diploma/
advanced diploma under national skill qualification framework (NSQF). The objectives are: (i) to
enhance the employability of youth; (ii) to maintain their competitiveness through provisions of
multi-entry multi-exit learning opportunities and vertical mobility; (iii) to fill the gap between
educated and employable and (iv) to reduce the drop out rate at the secondary level. Currently,
2035 schools across 25 states are implementing the Scheme.