Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme/system was launched from 2013 under which 25
schemes across eight ministries/departments were selected for implementation of DBT system in
43 pilot districts of 16 states/UTs. It envisages direct transfer of funds to beneficiary account
through the Aadhaar Payment Bridge (APB). From 2015, DBT Scheme was extended in the
entire country. Two scholarship schemes of the Department of School Education and Literacy,
viz., National Means-cum-Merit Scholarship Scheme (NMMSS) and National Scheme of
Incentive to Girls for Secondary Education (NSIGSE) are covered under it. A National
Scholarship Portal (NSP) has been made operational for on-line submission of proposals/list of
beneficiaries by the state governments for NMMSS and NSIGSE.
At the time of independence, 86 per cent of India’s population was illiterate and as such the
main focus of adult education had been on its very bottom tier i.e., imparting of ‘Basic literacy’.
For accomplishment of this objective, a series of programmes were introduced since the First
Plan period, the most prominent, being the National Literacy Mission (NLM), launched in 1988
for the adults in the age group of 15+. The programme of National Literacy Mission was
revamped in 2009 in alignment with new paradigms of lifelong learning as Saakshar Bharat.
Considerable progress has been made in raising the Literacy rate of the country but still the
levels remain uneven across different states, districts, social groups and minorities. The overall
goal of adult education is to establish a fully literate society through improved quality and
standard of adult education and literacy.
The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) is the operating and implementing
organization at national level for all the activities envisaged in Adult Education and Skill
Development. During the 12th Five Year Plan, NLMA has been striving to raise the literacy rate
to 80 per cent and to reduce the gender gap to less than 10 per cent.
Of the 410 districts which qualify for coverage under Saakshar Bharat Programme, the
Programme has been sectioned in 404 districts in 26 states and 1 union territory covering about
1.64 lakh Gram Panchayats. During 2016-17 the programme has been continued in these 404
districts. Teaching learning process has commenced in 57.8 lakh Literacy Centres. About 45.73
lakh Volunteer Teachers have been trained by Master Trainers and 2.54 lakh Master Trainers
were trained by Resource Persons. In addition about 13.5 thousand Resource Persons have also
been trained. Basic Literacy Primers in 13 languages and 26 local dialects have been printed and
distributed so far for the learners. Around 8.27 crore learners have been enrolled under basic
National Award to Teachers
Instituted in 1958, the National Award to Teachers (NAT) is given away by the President of
India on 5th September (Teacher’s Day) every year to give public recognition to meritorious
teachers working in primary, middle and secondary schools. Altogether there are 378 awards out
of which 23 are reserved for Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic teachers. Each state/union territory/
organization has an earmarked quota based on the number of teachers. The Scheme also covers
teachers of the schools affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) including
teachers of independent affiliated schools situated abroad, Council for Indian School Certificate
Examination (CISCE), Sainik School, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS), Navodaya
Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), Central Tibetan School Administration (CTSA) and schools run by the