IV. Sub-Programmes under SSA
      (a) The Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat (PBBB), a sub-programme of the SSA, in classes I and II is
      focusing on foundational learning in early grades with an emphasis on reading, writing and
      comprehension and mathematics. States and UTs have been implementing specific interventions
      like ABL in Tamil Nadu, Nalli Kali in Karnataka, Pragya in Gujarat; steps have been taken to
      develop specific teacher training modules for teachers teaching students in classes 1 and II.
      Punjab, Meghalaya, Delhi have introduced programmes for strengthening teaching of maths in
      classes I and II; in Sikkim schools have set up reading corners for children in the foundational
      classes through support from community members.
      (b) The Rashtriya Aavishkar Abhiyan (RAA), also under the SSA, aims to motivate and engage
      children of the age group 6-18 years, in science, mathematics and technology by observation,
      experimentation, inference drawing and model building, through both inside and outside
      classroom activities. Schools have been adopted for mentoring by institutions of higher
      education like IIT’s, IISER’s and NIT’s.
      (c) Vidyanjali, another sub-programme under SSA, was launched to enhance community and
      private sector involvement in Government run elementary schools across the country. The aim of
      the programme is to strengthen implementation of co-scholastic activities in government schools
      through services of volunteers.
      (d) ShaGun portal - an Initiative to monitor the implementation of SSA: MHRD has developed a
      web portal called ShaGun. It aims to capture and showcase innovations and progress in
      elementary education sector by continuous monitoring. ShaGun will help monitor progress by
      assessing performance of states and UTs on key parameters and thereby serve as a platform for
      the central government for effective planning and deliver on the promise of providing quality
      education to all. ShaGun, which has been coined from the words ‘Shala’ meaning schools and
      ‘Gunvatta’ meaning quality, has been developed with a twin track approach. It has an online
      monitoring module to measure state-level performance and progress against key educational
      indicators. It has been developed to collect and report data which will enable the government and
      administrators to track the efficiency with which SSA funds are being utilized and the results that
      this is delivering. The SSA ShaGun web portal can be accessed at http://ssashagun.nic.in.
      V. Teacher Training
      (a) Availability of Teachers: To meet the shortage of teachers in elementary schools, 19.49 lakh
      additional posts have been sanctioned under SSA up to 2016-17. After RTE it is mandatory that
      only those people may be appointed as teachers who are able to clear TET. CBSE has conducted
      eleven rounds of Teacher Eligibility Tests (TETs). Apart from these 2.34 lakh part-time
      instructors have also been sanctioned under SSA.
      (b) In-service Teacher Training: To upgrade skills of teachers, SSA provides for annual in-
      service training up to 20 days for all teachers. Support of ₹ 6,000 per teacher per year is provided
      for two years to untrained teachers, already employed for the NCTE recognized training
      programme. Apart from this induction training for 30 days is given to freshly trained recruits. All
      training programmes cover pedagogical issues, including content and methodology, aimed at
      improving teaching learning transactions in classrooms and learning process in schools. Some of
      the major focus areas include guiding principles of NCF 2005, CCE, how children learn, subject-
      specific content or learning difficulties, activity-oriented methods, use of TLMs or learning kits,