at the end of November, 2017. There was a net increase of 7.05 million in the Internet
      subscribers during the period from March to September, 2017.
      Research and Development
           C-DOT, an autonomous body, is DoT’s R&D arm. The organisation is committed to
      providing a wide range of cost-effective, indigenously developed and state-of-the-art total
      telecom solution. C-DOT has grown to the level of a national centre for R&D in communication
      technology in many areas - Satellite communications, IN, ATM, DWDM, NMS. Wireless
      Broadband, GPON, NGN and Mobile Cellular systems.
           DoT has the following PSUs under its administrative control: (a) Bharat Sanchar Nigam
      Limtied (BSNL); (b) Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL); (c) ITI Limited; (d)
      Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL); (e) Bharat Broadband Network Limited
      (BBNL); (f) Hemisphere Properties India Limited (HPIL).
      Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
           Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), fully owned by Government of India, formed in
      October 2000, provides telecom services across the length and breadth of the country excluding
      Delhi and Mumbai. BSNL is providing all types of telecom services namely telephone services
      on landline, WLL and GSM mobile, broadband, internet, leased circuits and long distance
      telecom services. Rural telephony is one of its focus areas. BSNL also pays special emphasis on
      development of telecommunication facilities in North-Eastern region and in tribal areas as well
      as in the LWE affected areas.
      Relevant Website:
      Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited
           Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL), set up in 1986, is a Navratna PSU and
      provides telecommunication facilities in India’s key metros - Delhi and Mumbai. MTNL is the
      principal provider of fixed-line telecommunication service in these two metropolitan cities, and
      for GSM mobile services in four peripheral towns of Noida, Gurgaon, Faridabad and Ghaziabad
      along with Delhi city and the areas falling under the Mumbai Municipal Corporation, New
      Mumbai Corporation and Thane Municipal Corporation along with Mumbai city, also come
      under the jurisdiction of the company. MTNL is providing triple play services i.e., voice, high
      speed internet and IPTV on its broadband network.
      Relevant Website:
      Indian Telephone Industries
           Indian Telephone Industries (ITI) Limited was established in 1948, to supply telecom
      equipment to the then telecom service provider, DoT, ITI started its operations in Bengaluru in
      1948, which were further extended to other areas by setting up manufacturing plants at Srinagar
      in Jammu and Kashmir, Naini, Rae Bareli and Mankapur in Uttar Pradesh, and Palakkad in
      Kerala. All the manufacturing plants are accredited with ISO 9001-2000 standards. The
      establishment of these plants at various locations was aimed not only at the augmentation of
      manufacturing capacity but also at the development of social infrastructure.
      Relevant Website: