legislature without previous sanction of the President.
      Control over Executive
            State legislatures, apart from exercising the usual power of financial control, use all normal
      parliamentary devices like questions, discussions, debates, adjournments and no-confidence
      motions and resolutions to keep a watch over day-to-day work of the executive. They also have
      their committees on estimates and public accounts to ensure that grants sanctioned by Legislature
      are properly utilized.
      Union Territories
            Union territories are administrated by the President acting to such extent, as he thinks fit,
      through an administrator appointed by him. Administrators of Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
      Delhi and Puducherry are designated as Lieutenant Governors. The Governor of Punjab is
      concurrently the administrator of Chandigarh. The administrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is
      concurrently the administrator of Daman and Diu. Lakshadweep has a separate administrator.
            The National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Puducherry each has a
      Legislative Assembly and Council of Ministers. The Legislative Assembly of the Union
      Territory of Puducherry may make laws with respect to matters enumerated in List II or List III
      in the seventh Schedule of the Constitution in so far as these matters are applicable in relation to
      the union territory. The Legislative Assembly of National Capital Territory of Delhi has also
      these powers with the exceptions that entries 1, 2 and 18 of the list II are not within the
      legislative competence of the Legislative Assembly. Certain categories of bills, however, require
      the prior approval of the central government for introduction in the Legislative Assembly. Some
      bills, passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Union Territory of Puducherry and National
      Capital Territory of Delhi are required to be reserved for consideration and assent of the
      President.
      Local Government
      Municipalities
            Municipal bodies have a long history in India. The first such Municipal Corporation was
      set-up in the former Presidency Town of Madras in 1688; and later in Bombay and Kalkata in
      1726. The Constitution of India has made detailed provisions for ensuring protection of
      democracy in Parliament and in the state legislatures. However, the Constitution did not make
      the local self-government in urban areas a clear-cut constitutional obligation. While the Directive
      Principles of State Policy refer to Village Panchayats, there is no specific reference to
      municipalities except the implicity in Entry 5 of the State List, which places the subject of local
      self-governments as a responsibility of the states.
            In order to provide for a common framework for urban local bodies and help to strengthen
      the functioning of the bodies as effective democratic units of self-government, Parliament
      enacted the Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992 (known as Nagarpalika Act) relating to
      municipalities in 1992. It came into effect in 1993. A new Part IX-A relating to the
      municipalities added to provide for among other things, constitution of three types of
      municipalities, i.e., Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to urban area,
      Municipal Councils for smaller urban areas and Municipal Corporation for large urban areas,