and they cease to exist as soon as they complete the task assigned to them.
           Standing Committees: Among the Standing Committees, the three Financial Committees
      —Committees on Estimates, Public Accounts and Public Undertakings— constitute a distinct
      group as they keep an unremitting vigil over Government expenditure and performance. While
      members of the Rajya Sabha are associated with Committees on Public Accounts and Public
      Undertakings, the members of the Committee on Estimates are drawn from the Lok Sabha.
           The Estimates Committee reports on what economies, improvements in organization,
      efficiency or administrative reform consistent with policy underlying the estimates may be
      effected. It also examines whether the money is well laid out within limits of the policy implied
      in the estimates and suggests the form in which estimates shall be presented to the Parliament.
      The Public Accounts Committee scrutinizes appropriation and finance accounts of Government
      and reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. It ensures that public money is spent in
      accordance with the Parliament’s decision and calls attention to cases of waste, extravagance,
      loss or nugatory expenditure. The Committee on Public Undertakings examines reports of the
      Comptroller and Auditor-General, if any. It also examines whether public undertakings are being
      run efficiently and managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent
      commercial practices.
           Besides these three financial committees, the Rules Committee of the Lok Sabha
      recommended setting-up of 17 Department Related Standing Committees (DRSCs).
      Accordingly, 17 Department Related Standing Committees were set up on April 8, 1993. In July,
      2004, rules were amended to provide for the constitution of seven more such committees, thus
      raising the number of DRSCs from 17 to 24. The functions of these committees are: (a) to
      consider the demands for grants of various ministries/departments of Government of India and
      make reports to the Houses; (b) to examine such bills as are referred to the committee by the
      Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, and make reports thereon; (c) to consider
      annual reports of ministries/departments and make reports thereon; and (d) to consider policy
      documents presented to the Houses, if referred to the committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha
      or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, and make reports thereon.
           Other Standing Committees in each House, divided in terms of their functions, are (i)
      Committees to Inquire: (a) Committee on Petitions examines petitions on bills and on matters of
      general public interest and also entertains representations on matters concerning subjects in the
      Union List; and (b) Committee of Privileges examines any question of privilege referred to it by
      the House or Speaker/Chairman; (ii) Committees to Scrutinize: (a) Committee on Government
      Assurances keeps track of all the assurances, promises, undertakings, etc., given by Ministers in
      the House and pursues them till they are implemented; (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation
      scrutinizes and reports to the House whether the power to make regulations, rules, sub-rules,
      bye-laws, etc., conferred by the Constitution or Statutes is being properly exercised by the
      delegated authorities; and (c) Committee on Papers Laid on the Table examines all papers laid
      on the table of the House by ministers, other than statutory notifications and orders which come
      within the purview of the Committee on Subordinate Legislation, to see whether there has been
      compliance with the provisions of the Constitution, Act, rule or regulation under which the paper
      has been laid; (iii) Committees relating to the day-to-day business of the House: (a) Business
      Advisory Committee recommends allocation of time for items of Government and other business
      to be brought before the Houses; (b) Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions of
      the Lok Sabha classifies and allocates time to bills introduced by private members, recommends