monuments; promotion of justice on the basis of equal opportunity; provision of free legal aid;
protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife of the
country; and promotion of international peace and security, just and honourable relations
between nations, respect for international law, treaty obligations and settlement of international
disputes by arbitration.
The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President and the Council of
Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advise the President.
The President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of elected members
of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the
system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. To secure uniformity
among states inter se as well as parity between the states, as a whole, and the Union, suitable
weightage is given to each vote. The President must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years
of age and qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha. His term of office is five years
and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure
prescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. He may, by writing under his hand addressed to the
Vice-President, resign his office.
The executive power of the Union is vested in the President and is exercised by him either
directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. The supreme
command of defence forces of the Union also vests in him. The President summons, prorogues,
addresses, sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha; promulgates Ordinances
at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session; makes recommendations for
introducing financial and money bills and gives assent to bills; grants pardons, reprieves, respites
or remission of punishment or suspends, remits or commutes sentences in certain cases. When
there is a failure of the constitutional machinery in a state, he can assume to himself all or any of
the functions of the Government of that state. The President can proclaim emergency in the
country if he is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby security of India or any part of
its territory is threatened whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion.
The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of
both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by
means of single transferable vote. He must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and
eligible for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha. His term of office is five years and he is
eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed
in Article 67(b).
The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as President when
the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or any other cause or till the
election of a new President (to be held within six months when a vacancy is caused by death,