monuments; promotion of justice on the basis of equal opportunity; provision of free legal aid;
      protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife of the
      country; and promotion of international peace and security, just and honourable relations
      between nations, respect for international law, treaty obligations and settlement of international
      disputes by arbitration.
      The Union
      Executive
            The Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President and the Council of
      Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advise the President.
      President
            The President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of elected members
      of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states in accordance with the
      system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. To secure uniformity
      among states inter se as well as parity between the states, as a whole, and the Union, suitable
      weightage is given to each vote. The President must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years
      of age and qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha. His term of office is five years
      and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure
      prescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. He may, by writing under his hand addressed to the
      Vice-President, resign his office.
            The executive power of the Union is vested in the President and is exercised by him either
      directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. The supreme
      command of defence forces of the Union also vests in him. The President summons, prorogues,
      addresses, sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha; promulgates Ordinances
      at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session; makes recommendations for
      introducing financial and money bills and gives assent to bills; grants pardons, reprieves, respites
      or remission of punishment or suspends, remits or commutes sentences in certain cases. When
      there is a failure of the constitutional machinery in a state, he can assume to himself all or any of
      the functions of the Government of that state. The President can proclaim emergency in the
      country if he is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby security of India or any part of
      its territory is threatened whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion.
      Vice-President
            The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of members of
      both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by
      means of single transferable vote. He must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and
      eligible for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha. His term of office is five years and he is
      eligible for re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedure prescribed
      in Article 67(b).
            The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as President when
      the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or any other cause or till the
      election of a new President (to be held within six months when a vacancy is caused by death,