These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories of Fundamental
      Rights which are justifiable. Articles 12 to 35 contained in Part III of the Constitution deal with
      Fundamental Rights. These are: (i) Right to equality including equality before law, prohibition of
      discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth and equality of
      opportunity in matters of employment; (ii) Right to freedom of speech and expression, assembly,
      association or union, movement, residence, and right to practice any profession or occupation
      (some of these rights are subject to security of the state, friendly relations with foreign countries,
      public order, decency or morality); (iii) Right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forced
      labour, child labour and traffic in human beings; (iv) Right to freedom of conscience and free
      profession, practice and propagation of religion; (v) Right of any section of citizens to conserve
      their culture, language or script and right of minorities to establish and administer educational
      institutions of their choice; and (vi) Right to constitutional remedies for enforcement of
      Fundamental Rights.
      Fundamental Duties
            By the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution, adopted in 1976, Fundamental Duties of the
      citizens have also been enumerated. Article 51 ‘A’ contained in Part IV A of the Constitution
      deals with Fundamental Duties. These enjoin upon a citizen among other things, to abide by the
      Constitution, to cherish and follow noble ideals, which inspired India’s struggle for freedom, to
      defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so and to promote
      harmony and spirit of common brotherhood transcending religious, linguistic and regional or
      sectional diversities.
      Directive Principles of State Policy
            The Constitution lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy, which though not
      justifiable, are ‘fundamental in governance of the country’ and it is the duty of the state to apply
      these principles in making laws. These have been contained in Part IV from Articles 36 to 51 of
      the Constitution. These lay down that the state shall strive to promote the welfare of people by
      securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice—social, economic
      and political—shall form the basis in all institutions of national life. The state shall direct its
      policy in such a manner so as to secure the right of all men and women to an adequate means of
      livelihood, equal pay for equal work and within limits of its economic capacity and development,
      to make effective provision for securing the right to work, education and to public assistance in
      the event of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement or other cases of undeserved
      want. The state shall also endeavour to secure to workers a living wage, humane conditions of
      work, a decent standard of life and full involvement of workers in management of industries.
            In the economic sphere, the state is to direct its policy in such a manner as to secure
      distribution of ownership and control of material resources of community to sub-serve the
      common good and to ensure that operation of economic system does not result in concentration
      of wealth and means of production to common detriment.
            Some of the other important directives relate to provision of opportunities and facilities for
      children to develop in a healthy manner, free and compulsory education for all children upto the
      age of 14; promotion of education and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes
      and other weaker sections; organisation of village panchayats; separation of judiciary from
      executive; promulgation of a uniform civil code for whole country; protection of national