mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National
Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza:
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim,
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim,
Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!
The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose1 is:
I bow to thee, Mother,
cool with the winds of the south,
dark with the crops of the harvests,
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight,
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom,
sweet of laughter, sweet of speech,
the Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.
The National Calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal
year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the
following official purposes: (i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcast by All India Radio, (iii)
calendars issued by the Government of India and (iv) Government communications addressed to
Dates of the National Calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the
Gregorian Calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on March 22 normally and on March 21 in leap year.
Relevant Website: www.mha.gov.in