l  The last ruler of the Gupta Dynasty was Vishnu        l Basel Protocol is related to trans-boundary
      Gupta.                                                  hazardous dumping.
                       Success Tip                                            Success Tip
Vishnugupta is generally considered to be the last       The Basel Convention is an international treaty that
recognized king of the Gupta Empire. His reign lasted    was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous
10 years, from 540 to 550 CE. From the fragment of       waste between nations, and specifically to prevent
his clay sealing discovered at Nalanda during the        transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less
excavations of 1927-28, it is revealed that he was the   developed countries (LDCs).
son of Kumaragupta III and the grandson of                  l Parasitic food chain is Trees > Fruits eating birds
Narasimhagupta.                                               > Lice and bugs.
Medieval History                                                              Success Tip
   l  Guru Gobind Singh was educated and learnt          A single plant or animal in a parasitic food chain
      Persian in Anandpur Sahib.                         may support numerous parasites, which might be
                       Success Tip                       further supporting a large number of hyperparasites.
Guru Gobind Singh (22 December 1666 – 7 October          Thus, the pyramid of numbers in a parasitic food
                                                         chain is inverted.
1708) was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master,
warrior, poet and philosopher.                          Polity
Modern History                                              l Pluralist Theory of Sovereignty emphasizes the
                                                              importance of association.
   l  The precursor of Indian National Congress was
      Indian Association.                                                     Success Tip
   l  The annexation of Sindh in British State was       The Pluralist theory of sovereignty rejects the monistic
      done during governor general Lord Ellenborough.    theory of sovereignty and denies that sovereignty is
                       Success Tip                       the absolute and indivisible supreme power of the state.
                                                         The pluralist challenge to state-sovereignty coincided
Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough GCB PC (8
                                                         with the conditions created by the First World War.
September 1790 – 22 December 1871) was a British
Tory by duke of combridge politician. He was four           l The system of judicial review was originated in
times President of the Board of Control and also served       USA.
as Governor-General of India between 1842 and 1844.         l The District Planning Commission is constituted
                                                              under article 243ZD of the Indian Constitution.
Geography and Environment                                   l Simple majority is required for constitutional
   l  The second most abundant element on Earth’s             amendment in forming a new state.
      crust is silicon.
   l  A shallow place in a river or stream allowing one                       Success Tip
      to walk or drive across.                           Simple majority refers to the majority of more than
   l  Hurricane, Tornado and Cyclone are warm wind       50% of the members present and voting. This is also
      but Bora is a cold-dry wind.                       known as functional majority or working majority.
   l  The man-made reservoir Gobind Sagar located
                                                            l Attorney General of India has the right to take
      in Bilaspur is situated in Himachal Pradesh.
                                                              part in the proceedings of Parliament of India
   l  Narmada, Tapti and Mahi rivers flows from East
                                                              even though he is not a member.
      to West but Cauvery River flows from West to
      East.                                             Economy
   l  Itai-Itai disease is caused by metal pollution.       l Depreciation is fixed assets is an example of
                       Success Tip                            capital expenditure.
                                                            l The features of monopolistic competition are:
Itai-Itai disease was the name given to the mass
                                                              • large number of buyers and sellers in the
cadmium poisoning of Toyama Prefecture, Japan,
starting around 1912. The term "Itai-Itai disease" was
                                                              • differentiated products constitute the market
coined by locals for the severe pains victims felt in
the spine and joints.                                         • selling costs • less mobility
                                                            l The maximum loan amount permissible under
   l Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen
                                                              the MUDRA Yojana is Rs. 10 lakh.
      dioxide are the inorganic gas but ethylene
      dichloride is an organic gas.                                           Success Tip
                       Success Tip                       Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY) aims to
                                                         provide formal access of financial facilities to non-
Pollutants like carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon           corporates, small businesses.
monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide
(NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are collectively called     l As per a latest classification of countries by the
as Inorganic gaseous pollutants.                              World Bank India now belongs to category of
                                                              lower-middle income country.