l ‘Democracy is the government of the people, for       l Direction of heat flow depends on temperature.
     the people and by the people’ was said by Abra-       l The phenomenon of reflection is involved in Ka-
     ham Lincoln.                                             leidoscope.
   l Three (3) types of emergencies can be proclaimed
                                                                               Success Tip
     in India.
                                                         A kaleidoscope is an optical instrument with two or
                     Success Tip                         more reflecting surfaces inclined to each other in an
The President in India can declare three types of emer-  angle.
gencies: National Emergency under article 352, State       l In a magnifying glass convex lens is used.
Emergency under article 356 and Financial Emer-
gency under article 360.                                Chemistry
   l Indian Constitution contains Twenty-five (25)         l Substances and their nature
     parts.                                                       Nature                   Substance
                     Success Tip                              a. Acidic                    Carbonated drink
                                                              b. Basic                     Soap
Original constitution had 22 parts; Later 3 parts were
added to it as amendments (9A-Municipalities; 9B-             c. Neutral                   Distill water
W-operative societies 9 14A Tribunals).                    l The nature of thorium is radioactive.
   l Money bill can be introduced first only in Lok        l Uranium is used as fuel rods in Atomic reactor.
     Sabha.                                                l Bleaching action of chlorine is due to oxidation.
   l Indian citizenship can be lost in three (3) ways.  Biology
   l The Prime Minister of India is appointed by the
                                                           l Cell wall organelle is present only in plant cell.
     President of India.
                                                                               Success Tip
                                                         A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some
   l The full form of GNI is Gross National Income.
                                                         types of cells, situated outside the cell membrane. It
                     Success Tip                         can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid.
Gross National Income (GNI) is defined as the sum of       l  A vestigial organ in human body is wisdom teeth.
value added by all producers who are residents in a        l  Thrombin enzyme is essential for clotting of blood.
nation, plus any product taxes (minus subsidies) not       l  An example of genetic disease is Down syndrome.
included in output, plus income received from abroad       l  Onion is an example of bulb, which is a modified
such as employee compensation and property income.            stem.
   l An apex institution in the sphere of Agriculture      l Melanin gives colour to human skin.
     credit in India is NABARD (National Bank for
                                                                               Success Tip
     Agriculture and Rural Development).
   l Gross Domestic Product in India is measured by      Melanin is a broad term for a group of natural pig-
     Central Statistics Office.                          ments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced
   l The ‘Rolling Plan’ was suggested by Gunnar Myrd-    by the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine, followed
     al.                                                 by polymerization.
                     Success Tip                        Sports
Rolling plan is a plan which is designed to continue       l National sport of Malaysia is badminton.
over a period of time and is subject to regular review
and updating.                                           Miscellaneous
   l ‘Tendulkar Committee’ was constituted to mea-         l RAM is also termed as main memory of comput-
     sure poverty.                                            er.
                     Success Tip                                               Success Tip
In 2005, Suresh Tendulkar committee was constitut-       RAM stands for Random Access Memory.
ed by the Planning Commission. The current estima-         l BIT is also known as binary digit.
tions of poverty are based upon the recommenda-
tions of this committee.                                                       Success Tip
Physics                                                  The bit is a basic unit of information used in com-
                                                         puting and digital communications. BIT is smallest
   l A flying jet possesses both kinetic and potential   storage unit.