l Carbon dioxide is considered to be a pollutant.         l Five Year Plans and their related years
                      Success Tip                                  Five Year Plan                    Year
                                                                a. First Five Year Plan              1951-1956
An air pollutant is a substance in the air that can have
adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The sub-           b. Third Five Year Plan              1961-1966
stance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases.       c. Fifth Five Year Plan              1974-1978
A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made.               d. Eight Five Year Plan              1992-1997
                                                                e. Eleventh Five Year Plan           2007-2012
Polity                                                       l Fifteen (15) Miniratna companies are there in
   l When power is shared among different organs of             Category – II.
     government, then it known as separation of pow-
     ers.                                                                        Success Tip
   l Coalition form of government is sharing of pow-      As on 13 September 2017, there are 8 Maharatnas,
     er by two or more political parties.                 16 Navratnas and 74 Miniratnas. Miniratnas is di-
   l Democratic government is based on free and fair      vided in two categories. In category – I, there are 59
     election where those currently in power have a       companies.
     fair chance of losing.                                  l GNP – depreciation allowances = NNP
   l The minimum age required to become a member
     of Rajya Sabha is thirty (30) years.                 Physics
   l Since Independence, National Emergency has              l Jet engine works on the principal of conserva-
     been declared three (3) times in India.                    tion of linear momentum.
                      Success Tip                                                Success Tip
            National Emergency duration                   Linear momentum is the product of the mass and
   l Between 26 October 1962 to 10 January 1968           velocity of an object. It is a three-dimensional vector
     during the India-China war                           quantity, possessing a direction and a magnitude.
   l Between 3 December 1971 to 21 March 1977 origi-         l The level of water in a vessel remains same when
     nally proclaimed during the Indo Pakistan war and          a piece of ice floating in it melts.
   l Between 25 June 1975 to 21 March 1977 under             l The mass is a measure of inertia.
     controversial circumstances of political instabil-
                                                             l The instrument used to study the laws of vibrat-
                                                                ing string is sonometer.
   l The Speaker of Lok Sabha presides over a joint
     sitting of both the houses summoned by the Pres-     Chemistry
     ident of India.
                                                             l Silicon is used in Solar Panels, ICs and optical
   l The Presidents Rule can be extended in India with
                                                                glass but it is not used in ink pen.
     the approval of Parliament in every six months
     for 3 years.                                            l Boron is used as control rod in Atomic reactor.
   l The minimum number of members required to be            l Nitro Glycerol is used for the preparation of dy-
     present in any one of the two houses of Parlia-            namite.
     ment for its functioning is one-tenth (1/10th) of       l Nitrogen dioxide is added to commercial nitric
     total members.                                             acid to make it coloured.
Economy                                                   Biology
   l Planned Economy in India is based on socialist          l An example of Ball and Socket joint in humans
     system.                                                    is Hip Joint.
                      Success Tip                                                Success Tip
A planned Economy is a type of economic system where      The ball and socket joint is a type of synovial joint in
investment and the allocation of capital goods is de-     which the ball-shaped surface of one rounded bone
termined by an Economy-wide plan of production.           fits into the cup-like depression of another bone.
   l Planning Commission was constituted in India            l BT seed have been developed for Cotton.
     in 1950.
                                                             l Lemon contains highest amount of Vitamin C.
                      Success Tip
                                                                                 Success Tip
The Planning Commission was an institution in the
                                                          Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the
Government of India, which formulated India"s Five-
                                                          repair of tissues and the making of certain neu-
Year Plans, among other functions. In 2015, Plan-
ning Commission was replaced by the newly formed
NITI Aayog.                                                  l Dolly was an example of cloned sheep.