General Geography
    SSC Cabinet Secretariat RO (ECO),
                                                           l  Gulf of Mannar, Nilgiris and Sunderbans are
          DFO (T) & DFO (GD) Tier-1
                                                              Biosphere Reserves.
          Exam Held on: 23.06.2013
                                                                              Success Tip
Ancient History                                          Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal
   l  Nishka, a type of coin was used during Gupta       ecosystems which promote the conservation of biodi-
      period.                                            versity with its sustainable use. They are interna-
   l  The King who called himself Devanampriya and       tionally recognized within the framework of
      ‘Priyadarshi’ was Ashoka.                          UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme
                                                         and nominated by national governments
Medieval History                                           l Coral Sea is located in the North-Eastern part
   l  One of the most controversial projects of Mu-           of Australia.
      hammad-binTughlaq was introduction of to-            l Minnesota (USA) is called the Land of Ten Thou-
      ken currency.                                           sand Lakes.
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 In 1330, he issued token currency; that is coins        Minnesota is a state in the Midwestern and
 of brass and copper were minted whose value was         northern regions of the United States has a large
 equal to that of gold and silver coins. Historian
                                                         number of lakes, and is known by the slogan “Land
 Ziauddin Barani felt that this step was taken by
                                                         of 10,000 Lakes”
 Tughluq as he wanted to annex all the inhabited
 areas of the world for which a treasury was required      l Hygrometer is used for measuring the relative
 to pay the army                                              humidity.
   l Sher Shah became the Emperor of Delhi after        Polity and Constitution
      defeating Humayun in the battle of Kannauj.          l  Quo-warranto means with what authority.
                      Success Tip                          l  The Lokayukta and Upalokayukta Act were first
 Battle of Kanauj or Billgram (17 May, 1540) Sher             passed in Maharashtra.
 Shah won against Humayun and occupied the city            l  C.E.M. Joad said, “Socialism is like a hat that
 of Agra and finally became the Emperor of Delhi.             has lost its shape because everybody wears it”.
   l Chaitanya has been regarded by his follower as        l  The Fascists supported the principle of “surviv-
      an incarnation of Vishnu.                               al of the fittest”.
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 Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (18 February 1486 – 14 June        “Survival of the fittest” is a phrase that originated
 1534) was a spiritual leader who founded Gaudiya        from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of de-
 Vaishnavism. He is believed by his devotees to          scribing the mechanism of natural selection
 be Krishna himself who appeared in the form of His
 own devotee in order to teach the people of this world Economy
 the process of Bhakti and how to attain the perfec-       l  The headquarters of RBI is in Mumbai.
 tion in life
                                                           l  Silver holding of the RBI is not included in the
Modern History                                                foreign-exchange reserves of India.
   l  The Government of India Act of 1935 was the          l  The number of workers who would offer them-
      outcome of ‘Communal Award’.                            selves for employment at different wage rates is
                                                              known as Supply of Labour.
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                                                           l  Land, Capital and Technology is factors of pro-
 The Communal Award was made by the British
 Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald on 4 August 1932
 granting separate electorates in India for the For-       l  As income increases the demand for inferior
 ward Caste, Lower Caste, Muslims, Buddhists, Sikhs,          goods decreases.
 Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, Europeans and           l  DBT as coined by Government recently stands
 Untouchables (now known as the Dalits) etc                   for Direct Benefit Transfer.
Physical Geography                                                            Success Tip
                                                         Direct Benefit Transfer or DBT is an attempt to
   l  The capacity of rock to allow water to pass
      through is called Permeability.                    change the mechanism of transf-erring subsidies
                                                         launched by Government of India on 1 January 2013.
   l  The region best known for the production of
                                                         This program aims to transfer subsidies directly to
      grapes is Mediterranean.
                                                         the people through their bank accounts
   l  The term ‘ecology’ was coined by Haeckel.