l  Nikita Khrushechev was the Russian leader when   Polity and Constitution
      the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-op-
                                                           l  President and the two Houses of Parliament
      eration was signed between India and Russia.            makes laws in India.
                      Success Tip                                              Success Tip
 The Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-Opera-     The parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) is vest-
 tion was signed between India and Russia on au-        ed with power to legislate on all subjects enumerat-
 gust 9, 1971 that specified mutual strategic co-op-    ed in the Union List and Concurrent List.
 eration. Nikita Khrushchev was the President of           l  The Indian Constitution envisages not only a
 Russia (USSR) IN 1971.                                       democratic form of government but also a demo-
   l  ‘Kesari’ was a Marathi Newspaper.                       cratic society, because it is infused with the spirit
                                                              of Justice, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
                      Success Tip
                                                                               Success Tip
 Kesari was founded in1881 by Lokmanya Bal Gan-
 gadhar Tilak, he also founded “Maratha” in English     The preamble to the Constitution embodies the ob-
                                                        jectives and basic purposes which indicate the fun-
 from Kesari Wada.
                                                        damental principles of new order.
Physical Geography                                         l Territorial Representation is used in the elec-
   l  Land jutting out into the sea is called Peninsu-        tion of members of the Lok Sabha.
      la.                                                                      Success Tip
                      Success Tip                       The members of the Lok Sabha are elected directly
                                                        by the people from Territorial const-ituencies in the
 Peninsula refers to a piece of land jutting into the   States and Union Territories.
 sea and almost surrounded by the sea
                                                           l Andhra Pradesh is the first linguistic state
   l  The term ‘Lithosphere’ refers to Crust of the           formed in India.
                                                                               Success Tip
                      Success Tip                       Andhra Pradesh is the first state in India to have
 Earth’s lithosphere includes the crust and the up-     been formed on a purely linguistic basis. On Octo-
 permost mantle                                         ber 1, 1953, eleven districts of the Madras State were
                                                        put together to form a new Andhra State with Kur-
Geography                                               nool in capital.
   l  The Kullu Valley is situated between the moun-   Economy
      tain ranges of Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal.
                                                           l  ‘Economic Survey of India’ is published every year
                      Success Tip                             by Ministry of Finance.
 Kullu is a broad open valley formed by the Beas Riv-      l  When labour supply curve bends backward, lei-
 er between Manali and Largi.                                 sure becomes an inferior commodity.
   l  Ganges is the leading sediment transporting riv-                         Success Tip
      er in India.                                      When labour supply curve bends back-ward people
                                                        will substitute leisure for working as wages are in-
                      Success Tip
 The Ganges Delta, formed mainly by the large, sed-
                                                           l  The term ‘food security’ implies sufficient sup-
 iment laden flows of the Ganges and Brahmaputra              plies of food at affordable prices.
 river, is the world’s largest delta, at about 59000
                                                           l  Cement is an example for derived demand.
                                                           l  A fall in the price of its complement does not
   l  Match between cities and business                       shift the demand curve for a product to the right.
      a. Tiruchirapalli Heavy     Electricals Industry                         Success Tip
      b. Visakhapatnam            Ship building         Demand curve is a line on graph showing the quan-
      c. Avadi                    Tank Factory          tity of a goods consumers would be able and willing
      d. Chittaranjan             Locomotive Works      to buy in a given market and specified time period
                                                        over a range of possible prices, other things being
   l  ‘Jhum’ is a type of cultivation
                                                        equal. The demand curve is depicted as downward-
                      Success Tip                       sloping from left to right.
 Jhum (Shifting) cultivation is a primitive practice       l  The Central Government gives grants-in-aid to
 of cultivation in States of North Eastern Hill Re-           the States out of the consolidated Fund of In-
 gion of India and people involved in such cultiva-           dia on the basis of the recommendation of the
 tion are called Jhumia                                       Finance Commission.