MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES                          identity. The achievement of translation is both the
                                                                globalisation of culture and the promotion of intra and inter-
   (1) Utopian (N.) : an idealistic social reformer
                                                                cultural bonding. One may appreciate and enjoy through
   (2) Cynical (Adj.) : having a sneering disbelief in others   translation the plays of Shakespeare even if one does not
   (3) Expository (Adj.) : intended to explain/describe         know the English language.
       something                                                     One may also know the rich world of Homer, Virgil,
   (4) Factual (Adj.) : existing in act/fact                    Dante, Milton, Dickens, Hardy, Leo Tolstoy, Zola and Munshi
   (5) Critical (Adj.) : marked by a tendency to find and       Prem Chand through translation. Translation responds to
       call attention to errors and flaws                       our intellectual, cultural and spiritual needs. It is necessary
   (6) Satirical (Adj.) : exposing human folly to ridicule      for information and for the exchange of ideas. Translation,
   (7) diffusion (N.) : spread of something                     which has hitherto been neglected and marginalized, has
                                                                assumed importance with rapid globalization. It is now
1118. According to the passage, a classless society is _____    considered an art which requires mastery and perfection.
        (1) A society in which there are no leaders.            A good translator is able to do away with superficiality and
        (2) A society where no one is willing to be led.        has a clear understanding of the text to be translated. He
        (3) A society where everyone would not give authority   should have mastery over the subtle nuances of the language
            to their leaders.                                   from which he is translating. Translating a passage of one
        (4) A society where everyone can become a leader.       language into another literally is not only impossible but
1119. What kind of leadership would a classless society         would also result in incorrect grammar and syntax.
                                                                              MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES
        (1) Leaders would not exploit others for their
                                                                   (1) forges (V.) : to put a lot of effort into making some-
            personal advantage.
                                                                       thing successful/ strong so that it will last
        (2) Leaders would not have too much authority over
                                                                   (2) hither to (Adv.) : up to the present time
                                                                   (3) subtle (Adj.) : not very noticeable/obvious
        (3) Many would develop leadership in the field of their
                                                                   (4) nuances (N.) : a very slight difference in meaning,
                                                                       sound, colour/feelings
        (4) Every person would have a reason to lead.
                                                                   (5) syntax (N.) : a systematic orderly arrangement
1120. What kind of people would be ideal for a classless
        society?                                                1123. According to the author, what does translation do?
        (1) People who are assertive enough to lead.                    (1) Translation divides the world into compartments.
        (2) People who book no opposition.                              (2) Translation brings together people speaking
        (3) People with conviction in their ideas.                          different languages.
        (4) People willing to innovate.                                 (3) Translation gives rise to animosity among people.
1121. According to the passage, the kind of a people who                (4) Translation is a means to succeed in the practical
        deny the idea of a classless society may be called                  world.
        _____                                                   1124. How does translation help us?
        (1) Utopian                (2) Cynical                          (1) It creates a babel of tongues.
        (3) Idealists              (4) Dictatorial                      (2) It denies us access to other cultures.
1122. What is the tone adopted by the author in this                    (3) It provides an insight into the cultural heritage of
        passage?                                                        a nation/people.
        (1) Expository             (2) Factual                          (4) It helps us to understand the ideas of the other
        (3) Critical               (4) Satirical                        languages.
                           Passage–III                          1125. Globalisation has _____
                     (Q. Nos. 1123–1127)                                (1) neglected the importance of translation.
     Translation is of immense importance today. With rapid
                                                                        (2) made us aware of the importance of translation.
commercialization, the narrow barriers between nations are
                                                                        (3) allowed us to enjoy the works of great writers.
fast disappearing. In the past, there used to be practically
no communication amongst nations. The modern world,                     (4) given translation its rightful place.
however, is no longer divided into water-tight compartments.    1126. What should be the approach of a good translator?
We are heading towards one world, thanks to development                 (1) Have mastery over his language.
in the fields of communication among nations today.                     (2) Have good knowledge of the other literature.
Translation forges bonds of unity amongst people who speak              (3) Do away with the nuances and express only the
different languages. Even if we do not know a particular                    main ideas.
language or the literature of a particular nation, we can               (4) Do away with the unwanted things and express
know its richness and the depth of its ideas through                        only the main ideas.
translation. Translation also helps in understanding the rich
                                                                1127. What should be the primary concern while translating
cultural heritage of a nation. Thus a multi-lingual person
                                                                        a passage from one language into another?
has a multi-focal view of the world. Translation also serves
                                                                        (1) Structural lapses should be ignored.
as a mode of cultural exchange in a multi-lingual country. It
plays a pivotal role in the evolution of a pluralistic national         (2) Word by word translation should be done