COMPREHENSION TEST
                        PASSAGE -VII                                    (2) Since hybrid vehicles use less gasoline and put
     A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle which uses two or more                   fewer emissions into the atmosphere, they are
kinds of propulsion. Most hybrid vehicles use a conven-                     better for the environment.
tional gasoline engine as well as an electric motor to pro-             (3) Hybrid vehicles are less expensive, so they are a
vide power to the vehicle. These are usually called hybrid-                 smarter buy than conventional vehicles.
electric-vehicles, or HEVs. Hybrids use two types of pro-               (4) Conventional vehicles are faster but hybrid vehi-
pulsion in order to use gasoline more efficiently than con-                 cles are better for the environment.
ventional vehicles do. Most hybrid vehicles use the gaso-                                PASSAGE - VIII
line engine as a generator which sends power to the elec-
                                                                      If you are a poet, you will see clearly that there is a
tric motor. The electric motor then powers the car. In con-
                                                                cloud floating in this sheet of paper. Without a cloud there
ventional vehicles, the gasoline engine powers the vehicle
                                                                will be no rain; without rain, the trees cannot grow; and
directly. Since the main purpose of using a hybrid system
                                                                without trees, we cannot make paper. The cloud is essen-
is to efficiently use resources, most hybrid vehicles also
                                                                tial for the paper to exist. If the cloud is not here, the sheet
use other efficient systems. Most hybrid vehicles have re-
                                                                of paper cannot be here either. So we can say that the
generative braking systems. In conventional vehicles, the
                                                                cloud and the paper are interrelated. If we look into this
gasoline engine powers the brakes, and the energy used in
                                                                sheet of paper even more deeply, we can see the sunshine
braking is lost. In regenerative braking systems, the ener-
                                                                in it. If the sunshine is not there, the forest cannot grow.
gy lost in braking is sent back into the electrical battery for
use in powering the vehicle. Some hybrid vehicles use pe-       In fact, nothing can grow. Even we cannot grow without
riodic engine shutoff as a gas-saving feature. When the         sunshine. And so, we know that the sunshine is also in
vehicle is idle, the engine temporarily turns off. When the     this sheet of paper. The paper and the sunshine inter-are.
vehicle is put back in gear, the engine comes back on.                And if we continue to look, we can see the logger who
Some hybrids use tyres made of a stiff material which rolls     cut the tree and brought it to the mill to be transformed
easily and prevents drag on the vehicle. Since hybrid vehi-     into paper. And we see the wheat. We know that the logger
cles use less gasoline than conventional vehicles, they put     cannot exist without his daily bread, and therefore the wheat
fewer emissions into the atmosphere than conventional ve-       that became his bread is also in this sheet of paper. And
hicles do. As hybrids have become more popular, conven-         the logger’s father and mother are in it too. When we look
tional vehicles are being used less, and the level of emis-     in this way, we see that without all of these things, this
sions being put into the air is decreasing. Hybrid vehicles     sheet of paper cannot exist.
are an example of an energy - efficient technology that is            Looking even more deeply, we can see we are in it too.
good for both consumers and the environment.                    This is not difficult to see, because when we look at a sheet
281. Two kinds of propelling forces used by hybrid vehi-        of paper, the sheet of paper is part of our perception. Your
      cles are                                                  mind is in here and mine is also. So we can say that every-
      (1) electric motor and power.                             thing is in here with this sheet of paper. You cannot point
      (2) electric engine and generator.                        out one thing that is not here - time, space, the earth, the
      (3) gasoline engine and electric motor.                   rain, the minerals in the soil, the sunshine, the cloud, the
      (4) electrical battery and gasoline.                      river, the heat. Everything co-exists with this sheet of pa-
282. The difference between hybrid and conventional ve-         per. This is why I think the word inter-be should be in the
      hicle is that                                             dictionary, “To be” is to inter-be. You cannot just be by
                                                                yourself alone. You have to inter-be with every other thing.
      (1) hybrids are heavier as compared to conventional
                                                                This sheet of paper is, because everything else is.
          ones.
      (2) hybrids do not use electric motors while conven-
                                                                                  SOME IMPORTANT WORDS
          tional ones do.
      (3) hybrids use gas while conventional vehicles use         perception :      the way you notice things, especially with
          petrol.                                                                   the senses.
      (4) hybrids use two types of propulsions while con-       286. A poet sees a cloud in a sheet of paper as
          ventionals rely on one.                                       (1) he/she is very creative.
283. Why do HEVs use two types of propulsions ?                         (2) he/she loves nature.
      (1) To go faster.
                                                                        (3) he/she writes poetry on paper.
      (2) To use gasoline efficiently.
                                                                        (4) he/she sees the universe as a single entity.
      (3) To provide a comfortable ride.
                                                                287. A cloud and the paper inter-are means
      (4) To become environmental friendly.
                                                                        (1) both are very important.
284. Regenerative most closely means
                                                                        (2) both exist because of the other; they are interre-
      (1) restorative            (2) electric
                                                                            lated.
      (3) gasoline               (4) powerful
                                                                        (3) a cloud exists on its own.
285. In the context of the passage which of the following
                                                                        (4) everything in this world is separate.
      best articulates how the author regards the topic ?
      (1) Conventional vehicles may be more powerful than       288. Why can’t the logger exist without his bread ?
          hybrid vehicles but hybrid vehicles are more so-              (1) He will die without food.
          cially responsible.                                           (2) He can’t grow wheat.
                                                           SEE–934