ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTION
515. (2) burrow                              monologue (N.) : a long speech          leash (N.) : a long piece of leath-
     burrow (N.) : a hole/tunnel in          in a play, movie, etc. spoken by        er, chain or rope used for hold-
     the ground made by animals such         one person, especially when             ing and controlling a dog
     as rabbits, for them to live in         alone                                   whip (N.) : a long thin piece of
     bore (N.) : a deep hole made in    520. (1) spelelogy                           rope/leather, attached to a handle,
     the ground, especially to find          speleology (N.) : the scientific        used for making animals move
     water or oil                            study of caves                          or punishing people
516. (4) libertarian                         seismology (N.) : the scientific   525. (4) connoisseur
     libertarian (N.) : a person who         study of earthquakes                    connoisseur (N.) : an expert on
     strongly believes that people           topology (N.) : the way the parts       matters involving the judgement
     should have the freedom to do           of something are arranged and           of beauty, quality/skill in art,
     and think as they like                  related                                 food/music
     guardian (N.) : a person who            numismatics (N.) : the study of         optimist (N.) : a person who al-
     protects something ; a person           coins and medals                        ways expects good things to
     who is legally responsible for the 521. (1) oligarchy                           happen/things to be successful
     care of another person, especial-       oligarchy (N.) : a form of gov-         hostage (N.) : a person who is
     ly a child whose parents have           ernment in which only a small           captured and held prisoner by a
     died ; custodian                        group of people hold all the power      person/group, and who may be
     tyrant (N.) : a person who has          autocracy (N.) : a system of gov-       injured/killed if people do not do
     complete power in a country and         ernment of a country in which           what the person/group is asking
     uses it in a cruel and unfair way       one person has complete power      526. (1) rhinologist
     humanitarian (N.) : a person            monarchy (N.) : a system of gov-        rhinologist (N.) : a specialist in
     who is conerned with reducing           ernment by a king/a queen               diseases of the nose
     suffering and improving the con-        anarchy (N.) : a situation in a         otologist (N.) : a specialist in
     ditions that people live in             country, an organisation, etc. in       diseases of the ear
517. (1) shrapnel                            which there is no government,           pathologist (N.) : a physician
     shrapnel (N.) : fragments from          order/control.                          who practises, evaluates, or su-
     an exploded artillery shell, mine, 522. (4) biodegradable                       pervises diagnostic tests
     or bomb                                 biodegradable (Adj.) : capable          podiatrist (N.) : a person whose
     splinters (N.) : small, thin sharp      of being decomposed by biologi-         job is the care and treatment of
     pieces of wood, metal, glass, etc.      cal agents, especially bacteria         people’s feet
     that have broken off a larger           inflammable (Adj.) : that can      527. (2) mammals
     pieces                                  burn easily ; flammable            528. (4) sedative
     filings (N.) : very small pieces        perishable (Adj.) : likely to de-       sedative (N.) : a drug that makes
     of metal made when a larger             cay/or go bad quickly                   somebody go to sleep/makes him
     piece of metal is filled                                                        feel calm and relaxed
                                             biological (Adj.) : connected
518. (1) culture                             with the processes that take place      reviver (N.) : one that revives
     culture (N.) : the customs and          within living things                    (brings back)
     beliefs, art, way of life and so-  523. (1) rancid                              stimulant (N.) : a drug/sub-
     cial organisation of a particular                                               stance that makes you feel more
                                             rancid (Adj.) : having an un-
     country/group                                                                   awake and gives you more energy
                                             pleasant stale taste/smell as the
     civilization (N.) : a society, its      result of decomposition                 energic (Adj.) : full of energy
     culture and its way of life during                                         529. (3) extempore
                                             insipid (Adj.) : having almost no
     a particular period of time/in a
                                             taste/flavour                      530. (2) carnivorous
     particular part of the world
                                             savoury (Adj.) : having a pleas-   531. (2) pseudonym
     infrastructure (N.) : the basic
                                             ant taste/smell                         pseudonym (N.) : a name used
     systems and services that are
                                             tepid (Adj.) : slightly warm,           by somebody, especially a writ-
     necessary for a country or an
     organisation to run smoothly            sometimes in a way that is not          er, instead of his real name
                                             pleasant                                nickname (N.) : an informal,
     (buildings, transport, water and
     power supplies)                    524. (4) yoke                                name for a person that is con-
                                             yoke (N.) : a long piece of wood        nected with his real name, his
     ritual (N.) : a series of actions
     that are always performed in the        that is fastened across the necks       personality/appearance, or with
                                             of two animals, so that they may        something he has done
     same way, especially as part of
     a religious ceremony                    pull heavy loads.                       sobriquet (N.) : an informal
                                             rein (N.) : a long narrow leath-        name/title that you give some-
519. (4) soliloquy
                                             er band that is attached to a           body/something ; nickname
     soliloquy (N.) : a speech in a
                                             metal bar in a horse’s mouth            pet name (N.) : a name you use
     play in which a character, who
                                             and is held by the rider in or-         for somebody instead of his real
     is alone on the stage, speaks
                                             der to control the horse                name, as a sign of affection
     his/her thoughts
                                                       SEE–691