ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTION
     accuser (N.) : a person who says         fatalist (N.) : a person who be-         philology (N.) : the scientific
     that somebody has done some-             lieves that events are decided by        study of the development of lan-
     thing wrong/is guilty of some-           fate and cannot be controlled            guage/of a particular language
     thing                                    communist (N.) : a person who       491. (3) glazier
482. (3) volunteer                            believes in an economic system           glazier (N.) : a person whose job
483. (1) sceptic                              in which the state controls the          is to fit glass into the frames of
     sceptic (N.) : a person who usu-         means of producing everything            windows, etc.
     ally doubts that claims/state-           on behalf of the people                  welder (N.) : a person whose job
     ments are true, especially those    487. (4) extempore                            is to weld materials together
     that other people believe in             extempore (Adj.) : spoken/done           sculptor (N.) : a person who
     deist (N.) : a person who believes       without any previous thought/            makes sculptures
                                              preparation                              patisserie (N.) : a shop/store
     in God, especially God that cre-
     ated the universe but does not           impromptu (Adj.) : done with-            that sells cakes, etc.
     part in it                               out preparation/planning            492. (3) anarchy
                                              unscripted (Adj) : not written/          anarchy (N.) : a situation in a
     rationalist (N.) : a person who
                                              prepared in detail in advance            country, an organisation, etc. in
     believes that all behaviours, opin-
     ions, etc. should be based on            Ad lib (Adj.) : not prepared/            which there is no government,
                                              practised                                order/control
     reason rather than on emotions/
     religious beliefs                        [All the above words are related         monarchy (N.) : a system of gov-
                                              to speech]                               ernment by a king/a queen
     positivist (N.) : a person who
                                         488. (2) amnesia                              mobocracy (N.) : political con-
     believes in a system of philoso-
     phy based on things that can be          amnesia (N.) : a medical condi-          trol by a mob
     seen/proved, rather than on              tion in which somebody partly/           democracy (N.) : a system of
     ideas                                    completely loses one’s memory            government in which all the peo-
                                              amnesty (N.) : a period of time          ple of a country can vote to elect
484. (1) coffle
                                              during which people can admit            their representatives
     coffle (N.) : a group of animals,        to a crime/give up weapons with-    493. (2) accomplice
     prisoners, or slaves chained to-         out being punished                       accomplice (N.) : a person who
     gether in a line                         dementia (N.) : a serious mental         helps another to commit a crime/
     crew (N.) : all the people work-         disorder caused by brain disease/        to do something wrong
     ing on a ship, plane, etc.               injury, that affects the ability to 494. (3) inaudible
     company (N.) : a group of per-           think, remember and behave nor-
                                                                                       inaudible (Adj.) : that you can-
     sons - firm, business enterprise         mally
                                                                                       not hear
     cortege (N.) : a line of cars/peo-       myopia (N.) : the inability to see
                                                                                       imperceptible (Adj.) : very small
     ple moving along slowly at a fu-         things clearly when they are far
                                                                                       and therefore unable to be seen/
     neral.                                   away
                                                                                       felt
485. (1) mercenary                       489. (2) eulogy
                                                                                       indelible (Adj.) : impossible to
     mercenary (N.) : a soldier who           eulogy (N.) : a speech/piece of          forget/remove ; (of ink, pens,
     will fight for any country/group         writing praising somebody/               etc.) leaving a mark that cannot
     that offers payment                      something very much                      be removed
     liquidator (N.) : a person re-           tribute (N.) : an act, a statement       ineffable (Adj.) : too great/beau-
     sponsible for closing down a             or a gift that is intended to show       tiful to describe in words
                                              your respect/admiration, espe-
     business and using any profits                                               495. (2) jaunt
                                              cially for a dead person
     from the sale to pay its debts                                                    jaunt (N.) : a short journey that
                                              accolade (N.) : praise/an award
     venal (Adj.) : prepared to do dis-                                                you make for pleasure; excursion
                                              for an achievement that people
     honest/immoral things in return                                                   rambler (N.) : a person who
                                              admire
     for money ; corrupt                                                               walks in the countryside for plea-
                                              oration (N.) : a formal speech
     hireling (N.) : a person who is                                                   sure, especially as part of an
                                              made on a public occasion, es-
     willing to do anything/work for                                                   organised group
                                              pecially as part of a ceremony
     anyone as long as he is paid                                                      detour (N.) : a longer route that
                                         490. (2) calligraphy
486. (1) fastidious                                                                    you take in order to avoid a prob-
                                              calligraphy (N.) : beautiful hand-       lem/to visit a place
     fastidious (Adj.) : being careful        writing that you do with a spe-
     that every detail of something is                                                 stroller (N.) : a person who is
                                              cial pen/brush
     correct ; meticulous ; difficult to                                               enjoying a slow relaxed walk
                                              genealogy (N.) : the study of fam-
     please                                                                       496. (4) incentive
                                              ily history, including the study
     Infallible (Adj.) : never wrong;         of who the ancestors of a partic-        incentive (N.) : something that
     never making mistakes ; that             ular person were                         encourages you to do something
     never fails ; always doing what          cartography (N.) : the art/pro-          remark (N.) : something that you
     it is supposed to do                     cess of drawing/making maps              say/or write which expresses an
                                                        SEE–689