ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTION
     pessimist (N.) : a person who            autocracy (N.) : a country that          emotional (Adj.) : connected
     always expects bad things to             is ruled by one person who has           with people’s feelings (emotions
     happen or something not to be            complete power                           - a strong feeling such as love,
     successful                          300. (2) orator                               fear or anger)
     optimist (N.) : a person who al-         orator (N.) : a person who is good       enthusiastic (Adj.) : feeling /
     ways expects good things to hap-         at public speaking/ who makes            showing a lot of excitement and
     pen or things to be successful           formal speeches                          interest about somebody/ some-
     hypocrite (N.) : a person who            curator (N.) : a person whose            thing
     pretends to have moral stan-             job is to be in charge of the ob-        confident (Adj.) : feeling sure
     dards or opinions that he does           jects or words of art in a muse-         about your own ability to do
     not actually have                        um or art gallery, etc.                  things and be successful
296. (1) neighbourhood                        narrator (N.) : a person who tells  305. (2) extempore
     neighbourhood (N.) : a district/         a story, in a book/film/play             extempore (Adj.) : spoken/ done
     an area of a town - the people who       arbitrator (N.) : a person who is        without any previous thought/
     live there                               chosen to settle a disagreement          preparation ; impromptu
     crowd (N.) : a large number of                                                    verbose (Adj.) : using/ contain-
                                         301. (3) nepotism
     people gathered together in a                                                     ing more words than are needed
                                              nepotism (N.) : giving unfair ad-
     public place in the streets at a         vantages to your own family if           amateur (Adj.) : a person who
     sports ground, etc.                      you are in a position of power,          likes to take part in a sport/
     community (N.) : all the people                                                   other activity for enjoyment, not
                                              by giving them jobs
     who live in the particular area,                                                  as a job
                                              optimism (N.) : a feeling that
     country, etc.                                                                     verbatim (Adj.) : in exactly the
                                              good things will happen and that
                                                                                       same words as were used origi-
     public (N.) : connected with or-         something will be successful
                                                                                       nally
     dinary people in society in gen-         plagiarism (N.) : an act of copy-
     eral                                                                         306. (4) beneficiary
                                              ing another person’s ideas, work
                                                                                       beneficiary (N.) : a person who
297. (1) altitude                             or words and pretend that they
                                                                                       gains as a results of something
     altitude (N.) :the height above          are your own
                                                                                       benefactor (N.) : a person who
     sea level                                regionalism (N.) : the desire of
                                                                                       gives money/ other help to a
     certitude (N.) : a feeling of being      the people who live in a particu-
                                                                                       person or an organisation
     certain                                  lar region of a country to have
                                                                                       (school, charity)
     latitude (N.) : the distance of a        more political and economic in-
                                              dependence                               miser (N.) : a person who loves
     place north/south of the Equa-                                                    money and hates spending it
     tor, measured in degrees            302. (4) edible
                                                                                       hermit (N.) : a person who, usu-
     longitude (N.) : the distance of         edible (Adj.) : fit/ suitable to be      ally for religious reasons, lives a
     a place east/west of the Green-          eaten ; not poisonous                    very simple life alone and does
     wich Meridian, measured in de-           legible (Adj.) : clear enough to         not meet/ talk to other people
     grees                                    read
                                                                                  307. (1) omnivorous
298. (2) incredible                           credible (Adj.) : that can be be-        omnivorous (N.) : eating both
     incredible (Adj.) : unbelievable;        lieved/ trusted                          vegetables and meat
     impossible/ difficult to believe         audible (Adj.) : that can be
                                                                                       herbivorous (N.) : eating only
     inevitable (Adj.) : unavoidable;         heard clearly
                                                                                       plants/ vegetables
     that you cannot avoid/ prevent      303. (3) aggressive                           carnivorous (N.) : eating the
     suspicious (Adj.) : feeling that         aggressive (Adj.) : angry, and           flesh of other animals
     somebody has done something              behaving in a threatening way ;
                                                                                  308. (1) maiden
     wrong; illegal or dishonest, with-       ready to attack
                                                                                       maiden (N.) : the first speech
     out having any proof                     creative (Adj.) : having the skill       made by a person
                                              and ability to produce something
     impossible (Adj.) : that cannot                                                   extempore (N.) : spoken with-
                                              new, especially a work of art
     exist or be done ; not possible                                                   out any previous preparation
                                              impatient (Adj.) : annoyed/ ir-          debate (N.) : a formal discussion
299. (4) democracy
                                              ritated by somebody/ some-               of an issue expressing different
     democracy (N.) : a country in
                                              thing; waiting to do unpleasant          opinions
     which all the people of the coun-
                                              malicious (Adj.) : having/ show-         palaver (N.) : a lot of unneces-
     try can vote to elect their repre-
                                              ing hatred and a desire to harm          sary activity, excitement/ trou-
     sentatives
                                              somebody or hurt his feelings ;          ble caused by something that is
     plutocracy (N.) : a country gov-
                                              spiteful ; malevolent                    unimportant ; fuss
     erned by the richest people in it
                                         304. (3) articulate                      309. (1) notorious
     aristocracy (N.) : people born in        articulate (Adj.) : good at ex-
     the highest social class, who have                                                notorious (Adj.) : well-known in
                                              pressing ideas/ feelings clearly         a bad way
     special titles ; nobility                in words (speech)
                                                       SEE–676