ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTION
     investigate (V.) : to carefully ex- 175. (4) jauntily                           180. (4) synonyms
     amine the facts of a situation, an        jauntily (Adv.) : cheerfully ; lively      synonyms (N.) : words of the
     event, a crime, etc; to find out          lousily (Adv.) : very dirtily/badly        same meanings
     the truth about it or how it hap-                                                    homonyms (N.) : words pro-
                                               jocularly (Adv.) : with humour;
     pened                                                                                nounced/spelled the same way
                                               humorously
     determine (V.) : to discover the                                                     but having different meanings
                                               zealously (Adv.) : with humour;
     facts to calculate exactly; estab-                                                   pseudonym (N.) : a fictitious
                                               humorously
     lish                                                                                 name used instead of his real
                                         176. (4) barometer
     detect (V.) : to discover/notice                                                     names
     something that is not easy to see,        barometer (N.) : an instrument
                                                                                          antonyms (N.) : words of oppo-
     hear, etc.                                for measuring air pressure to
                                                                                          site meanings
                                               show when the weather will
171. (2) pedant                                                                      181. (4) protocol
                                               change
     pedant (N.) : a person who is                                                        protocol (N.) : a system of fixed
     too concerned with small details/         metronome (N.) : a device that
                                               makes a regular sound like a               rules and formal behaviour used
     rules especially while learning/                                                     at official meetings
     teaching                                  clock and is used by musicians
                                               for helping them keep the cor-             statesmanship (N.) : skill in man-
     scholar (N.) : a person who knows                                                    aging state affairs
                                               rect rhythm while playing a piece
     all about a particular subject be-                                                   diplomacy (N.) : skill in dealing
                                               of music.
     cause he has studied it in detail                                                    with people in difficult situations
     pedagogue (N.) : a teacher                compass (N.) : an instrument for
                                               finding directions                         without upsetting/offending
     literalist (N.) : a person who                                                       them ; tact
     makes/uses literal or realistic in        pedometer (N.) : an instrument
                                                                                          hierarchy (N.) : a system,
     art/literature                            for measuring how far you have
                                                                                          especially in a society or an
                                               walked
172. (1) stoicism                                                                         organisation, in which people are
                                         177. (4) optimist
     stoicism (N.) : the fact of not                                                      organised into different levels of
     explaining/showing what you are           optimist (N.) : a person who al-           importance from highest to lowest
     feeling when you are suffering            ways expects good things to hap-      182. (4) abdicate
     despair (N.) : the feeling of hav-        pen/things to be successful
                                                                                          abdicate (V.) : to give up the po-
     ing lost all hope                         magnate (N.) : a person who is             sition of being king/queen; to
     agony (N.) : extreme physical/            rich, powerful and successful in           fail/refuse to perform a duty
     mental pain                               business
                                                                                          abduct (V.) : to kidnap
     materialism (N.) : the belief that        creator (N.) : God; a person who
                                                                                          abandon (V.) : to leave
     only material things exist                has made/ invented a particular
                                                                                          abort (V.) : to end or cause to
173. (1) polyandry                             thing
                                                                                          end before something has been
     polyandry (N.) : the custom of            pacifist (N.) : a person who be-           completed because it is likely to
     having more than one husband              lieves that war and violent are            fail
     at the same time.                         always wrong
                                                                                     183. (3) inexorable
     polygamy (N.) : the custom of        178 .(2) universal
                                                                                          inexorable (Adj.) : that cannot
     having more than one wife at the          universal (Adj.) : done by or in-          be stopped/changed
     same time                                 volving all the people in the world        rigorous (Adj.) : done carefully
     bigamy (N.) : the crime of mar-           or in a particular group                   and with a lot of attention to de-
     rying somebody when you are               common (Adj.) : belonging to or            tail; thorough
     still legally married                     participated in by a community             negligent (Adj.) : failing to give
     debauchery (N.) : immoral be-             as a whole public                          enough care/attention
     haviour involving sex, alcohol or         worldly (Adj.) : connected with            despotic (Adj.) : a ruler with great
     drugs                                     the world in which we live rath-           power, especially one uses it in
174. (3) hallucination                         er than with spiritual things              a cruel way
     hallucination (N.) : the fact of          international (Adj.) : connect-       184. (4) specimen
     seeing/hearing something that is          ed with two/more countries                 specimen (N.) : sample ; a small
     not really there                    179. (2) notorious                               amount of something that shows
     imagination (N.) : the ability to         notorious (Adj.) : well-known for          what the rest of it is like
     create pictures in your mind              bad acts                                   specification (N.) : a detailed
     presumption (N.) : something              famous (Adj.) : well-known                 description of how something is/
     that is thought to be true or prob-       criminal (Adj.) : connected with           should be designed/ made.
     able                                      crime                                      spectre (N.) : something un-
     supposition (N.) : an idea that           terrorist (N.) : a person who              pleasant that people are afraid
     you think is true although you            uses violent action in order to            might happen in the future
     may not be able to prove it; as-          achieve political aims or to force         spectacle (N.) : a pair of glasses
     sumption                                  a government to act                        (spectacles); an unusual sight/
                                                        SEE–667