157. (4) stubborn (Adjective) : obsti-         the authority of a political, reli-        bonus (Noun) : an extra amount
     nate; determined not to change            gious system by attacking it               of money that is added to a pay-
     your opinion or attitude                  indict (Verb) : to officially charge       ment
     obstinate (Adjective) : stubborn          somebody with a crime                      reward (Noun) : something giv-
     antagonistic (Adjective) : a per-         confuse (verb) : to make some-             en to somebody because he has
     son who strongly opposes; op-             body unable to think clearly or            done something good
     ponent                                    understand something                  166. (2) kind (Adjective) : caring
     abstruse (Adjective) : difficult     162. (2) deadly (Adjective) : causing           about others; gentle, friendly and
     to understand                             or likely to cause death                   generous
     intrinsic (adjective) : belonging         virulent (Adjective) : extremely           benevolent (Adjective) : kind,
     to or a part of real nature               dangerous or harmful and quick             helpful and generous
158. (3) hazardous (Adjective) : in-           to have an effect                          beneficial (Adjective) : improv-
     volving risk or danger                    defunct (Adjective) : no longer            ing a situation; favourable; ad-
     dangerous (Adjective) : likely to         existing, operating or being used          vantageous
     injure or harm to damage or de-           daring (Adjective) : brave; will-          helpful (Adjective) : useful and
     stroy somebody/ something                 ing to do dangerous or unusual             able to improve a particular sit-
     safe (Adjective) : protected from         things, involving danger or tak-           uation
     any danger                                ing risks                                  supportive (Adjective) : giving
     strong (Adjective) : having a lot         deceptive (Adjective) : likely to          help, encouragement or sympa-
     of physical power to do hard              make you believe something that            thy to somebody.
     physical work                             is not true                           167. (3) forefathers (Noun) : persons
                                          163. (4) ardent (Adjective) : very en-          in your family who lived a long
     secure (Adjective) : feeling hap-
     py and confident about yourself           thusiastic and showing strong              time ago; ancestors
     or a particular situation; safe           feeling about something or some-           ancestors (Noun) : persons in
                                               body; passionate                           your family who lived a long time
159. (3) secret (Adjective) : kept hid-
                                               spirited (Adjective) : full of en-         ago; forebears; forefathers
     den from others
                                               ergy, determination or courage             extinct tribes (Noun) : tribes
     confidential (Adjective) : meant
                                               admirable (Adjective) : having             not existing
     to be kept secret and not told or
                                               qualities that you admire and              relatives (Noun) : persons who
     shared with other people
                                               respect                                    are in the same family as some-
     obvious (Adjective) : easy to
                                                                                          body else
     see or understand; clear                  adaptable (Adjective) : able to
                                               change or be changed in order              old people (Noun) : people who
     honest (Adjective) : always
                                               to deal successfully with new              are not young ; have lived for a
     speaking the truth, never steal-
                                               situations                                 long time
     ing or cheating
                                               advanced (Adjective) : having         168. (4) accept (Verb) : to agree or
     accurate (Adjective) : correct                                                       approve of something
     and true in every detail                  the most modern and recently
                                               developed ideas, methods, etc.             embrace (Verb) : to hug; to ac-
160. (1) criticise (Verb) : to say that                                                   cept an idea or proposal
     you disapprove of somebody or        164. (1) curse (Verb) : to say rude
                                               things to somebody or think rude           impress (Verb) : to make some-
                                               things about somebody or some-             body understand how important,
     censure (Verb) : to criticise                                                        serious, etc, something is by
     somebody severely and in pub-             thing
                                                                                          emphasising it
     lic                                       execrate (Verb) : to say rude
                                               things; curse; to declare to be            except (Verb; Prep.) : to not in-
     warn (Verb) : advise; to tell                                                        clude somebody or something;
     somebody about something dan-             evil
                                                                                          apart from
     gerous or unpleasant that is likely       deplore (Verb) : to strongly dis-
                                                                                          embarrass (Verb) : to make
     to happen                                 approve of something and criti-
                                                                                          somebody feel shy, awkward or
     advise (Verb) : to tell somebody          cize it
                                                                                          ashamed, epecially in a social
     what you think he should do in            denounce (Verb) : to strongly
     a particular situation                    criticize somebody or something
                                                                                     169. (3) submissive (Adjective) : too
     evaluate (Verb) : assess; to form         that is wrong, illegal etc.
                                                                                          willing to accept somebody else’s
     an opinion of the amount, value           desecrate (Verb) : to damage a             authority and willing to obey him
     or quality of something after think-      holy thing or place or treat it with-
                                                                                          without questioning
     ing about it carfully                     out respect
                                                                                          meek (Adjective) : quiet gentle
161. (3) contradict (Verb) : to say       165. (2) privilege (Noun) : a special           and always ready to do what oth-
     something that somebody else is           right; honour                              er people want without express-
     wrong and the opposite is true            perquisite (Noun) : a special              ing your own opinion; compliant;
     controvert (Verb) : to say or to          right; perk; privilege; prerogative        self-effacing
     prove that something is not true;         incentive (Noun) : something               light-hearted (Adjective) : in-
     refute; rebut; deny; contradict           that encourages you to do some-            tended to be amusing or easily
     subvert (Verb) : to try to destroy        thing                                      enjoyable; cheerful