DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH
     The magistrate ordered to call the witness. (I.S.)                                        were very slippery. (I.S.)
                 ̄                  ̄            ̄              ̄                                     ̄         ̄         ̄
               Sub.           Rep. V.        V.             Ob.                                 Aux2 Adv1 Adv2
     [ to will be used as it is an order ]                                                     As the sentence implies an order, to will be used in I.S.
244. (3) “Have you done this sort of work before? ” said                                  250. (2) The old lady declared that she was going
                                                                                                               ̄               ̄          ̄         ̄          ̄
               ̄       ̄        ̄        ̄              ̄               ̄           ̄
                                                                                                              Sub.         Rep. V. Conj. Pro1 Past Cont.
             Aux. Pro1        V.    Pro2           Ob.         Ext.wd.     Rep. V.
                                                                                               to walk where she pleased. They had the liberty. (I.S.)
     his new employer. (D.S.)
                                                                                                   ̄                   ̄         ̄           ̄  ̄                 ̄
        ̄            ̄
                                                                                                   V.              Pro2        V.      Pro3 Aux.           Ob.
     Pro3         Sub.                                                                         The old lady said ,“ I am going to walk where I please.
     His new employer asked him whether he had                                                          ̄            ̄          ̄             ̄               ̄  ̄
        ̄              ̄                ̄                  ̄       ̄  ̄                                    Sub.          Pro1 Pr. Cont.         V.          Pro2     V.
     Pro3            Sub.          Ext.wd.           Conj.   Pro1 Aux.                         We        have the liberty. ” (D.S.)
     done that sort of work before (earlier) (I.S.)                                              ̄          ̄          ̄
          ̄         ̄             ̄              ̄                                                  Pro3 Aux.          Ob.
         V.      Pro2          Ob.         Ext. wd.                                       251. (1) The teacher asked me why                        I had been absent
245. (4) Rahul says             that Azhar loves cricket. (I.S.)                                               ̄             ̄        ̄       ̄        ̄         ̄
                ̄         ̄          ̄         ̄           ̄         ̄                                              Sub.       Rep. V. Ob. Q. wd. Pro1 Past Per.
              Sub1     Rep.V. Conj. Sub2           S.Pr.      Ob.                              the day before. (I.S.)
     Rahul says, “Azhar loves cricket.” (D.S.)                                                            ̄
          ̄        ̄         ̄        ̄          ̄                                                         Ext. wd.
      Sub1 Rep. V. Sub2 S.Pr.              Ob.                                                 The teacher asked me, “Why                    were     you absent
      If the Rep. V. is in the S. Pr., there is no change in the Tense of the V. in the                 ̄             ̄        ̄         ̄          ̄        ̄
     Indirect Speech.                                                                                 Sub.        Rep. V. Ob. Q.wd. S. Past Pro1
246. (3) “I came home last night, ” said                     he. (D.S.)                        yesterday? ” (D.S.)
              ̄       ̄        ̄           ̄               ̄       ̄                                        ̄
            Pro1 S. Past Ob.        Ext.wd.        Rep. V. Pro2                                   Ext. wd.
     He       said that he had come home the previous night. (I.S.)                       252. (2) Mr. Robinson asked his son what he wanted to be
       ̄          ̄        ̄       ̄          ̄              ̄                ̄                                     ̄                 ̄         ̄          ̄       ̄        ̄       ̄
     Pro2 Rep. V. Conj. Pro1 Past Per.                Ob.           Ext. wd.                                Sub.            Rep. V. Ob. Q. wd Pro1 S. Past            V1
247. (2) The beggar said, ” Poverty is a great curse. ”(D.S.)                                  when he grew up. (I.S.)
                  ̄            ̄                    ̄                                                 ̄        ̄          ̄
                Sub.       Rep.V. Universal Truth (Fact)
                                                                                                Adv.     Pro2     Phr. V.
     The beggar said that poverty is a great curse. (I.S.)
                                                                                               “My son”, said Mr. Robinson, “ what do you want
              ̄           ̄         ̄                  ̄
                                                                                                     ̄            ̄              ̄               ̄       ̄        ̄       ̄
             Sub.     Rep. V. Conj.        Universal Fact
                                                                                                   Ob.         Rep. V.       Sub.         Q.wd. Aux. Pro1 S.Pr.
     If the Rep. Sent. tells a Universal Fact, there is no change in the Tense of the
     Rep. Sent. inI.S.                                                                         to be when you grow up ? ” (D.S.)
248. (2) “If        you want to smoke, you‘ll                   have to go out,”                  ̄          ̄         ̄           ̄
              ̄        ̄       ̄             ̄             ̄  ̄            ̄       ̄        ̄             V1       Adv.     Pro2      Phr. V.
            Conj1 Pro1       V1           V2          Pro2 Aux. Mod. V. V3       Adv.     253. (4) The boys respectfully wished their teacher good morning. (I.S.)
     said the conductor. (D.S.)                                                                             ̄               ̄             ̄              ̄                 ̄
          ̄            ̄                                                                                    Sub.            Adv.        S. Past        Ob.          Exclamation
      Rep. V.      Sub.                                                                        “Good morning Madam,” said the boys to their teacher.
     The conductor said             that        if    I/he wanted                                          ̄                            ̄         ̄                  ̄
                ̄               ̄         ̄         ̄        ̄      ̄
                                                                                                 exclamation                         Rep. V. Sub.               Ob.
              Sub.          Rep. V. Conj2 Conj1 Pro            V1
                                                                                          254. (3) She said ,          “I     am         sorry;        I    am not able.
     to smoke , I would have to go out. (I.S.)
                                                                                                        ̄        ̄        ̄        ̄             ̄          ̄        ̄
            ̄         ̄       ̄           ̄        ̄  ̄
                                                                                                      Sub. Rep. V. Pro1 Aux1 exlamation Pro2 Aux2
          V2        Pro2 Aux.      Mod. V. V3 Adv.
                                                                                               to submit those papers. “(D.S.)
249. (1) “Be careful; the steps are very slippery, “ I warned
                                                                                                      ̄            ̄          ̄
               ̄        ̄            ̄          ̄         ̄        ̄        ̄      ̄
             Aux1     Adj.       Sub1      Aux2 Adv1        Adv2    Sub2 Rep. V.                      V.        Pro3       Ob.
     him. (D.S.)                                                                               She apologised for not being able to submit
         ̄                                                                                        ̄             ̄                       ̄                 ̄
      Ob.                                                                                      Sub.        Rep. V.                Aux2                V.
     I      warned him to be careful as the steps                                              those papers. (I.S.)
      ̄            ̄        ̄        ̄         ̄         ̄       ̄                                             ̄
     Sub2 Rep. V. Ob.            Aux1     Adj. Conj. Sub1
                                                                                                      Ob.
                                                                                      SEE–411