TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES (ACTIVE/PASSIVE)
1. (4) The garbage was first sun-dried for one to three days to bring down the moisture level (Passive)
The sentence is in Simple Past Tense. (Active)
They first sun-dried the garbage .... The garbage was first sun-dried by them ..
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Subject Verb Object ® Active Subject Verb Object ® Passive
The Object of the Active Sentence becomes the Subject of the Passive. The Passive Sentence is formed with the
Verb be (is, was, has been, etc.) + a Past Participle. The personal thing that does the action (the agent) is
mentioned after the word by.
2. (2) Women like to be flattered by men. (Passive)
The sentence is in Simple Present Tense. (Active)
Women like men to flatter them. (means Men flatter women)
object Subject Infinitive + Verb Active
Women like to be flattered by men
Subject Infinitive + be + Verb Object Passive
Passive of Infinitives is done by retaining to followed by be and the Past Participle form of the Verb.
3. (1) What must be done, must be done properly. (Passive)
The sentence is in Simple Present Tense. (Active). It is also a complex sentence.
What one must do, one must do properly.
Subject Modal Verb Subject Modal Verb Active
What must be done , must be done . properly.
Modal be Verb Modal be Verb Passive
When a Modal is used in Active, the Passive form will be as follows :
Modal + be + Past Participle of the Verb.
In changing the voice of Complex Sentences, the voice of both the Principal Clause (one must do properly) and
Sub–ordinate Clause (what one must do) should be changed.
4. (4) Let the poll results be looked at-is hope inspired 9. (2) He has been granted a scholarship by the Princi-
by them ? (Passive) pal. (Passive)
The sentence is in Simple Present Tense. (Active) The sentence is in Present Perfect Tense. (Active)
5. (3) You are supposed to make the tea at eleven o" The Principal has granted him a scholarship.
be supposed to is used when something should hap- Subject Verb Object Object Active
pen because it is the rule or because it has been
planned. He has been granted a scholarship by the Principal
6. (1) His teacher congratulated him on his brilliant suc- Subject Verb Object Object
cess in the recent examination. (Active)
The sentence is in Simple Past Tense. (Passive) The Passive Voice of Verbs with two objects (him, a
scholarship) is formed by changing either of the two
He was congratulated by his teacher... Objects into the Subject and retaining the other as
the Object. him is the Factitive Object in Active
Subject Verb Object Active which is changed to He in Passive.
10. (2) Men, women and children throng the shops be-
His teacher congratulated him... fore festivals making various purchases. (Active)
The sentence is in Simple Present Tense. (Passive)
Subject Verb Object Passive Before festivals the shops are thronged with men,
7. (1) English is spoken all over the world. (Passive) women and children ...
The sentence is in Simple Present Tense. (Active) ̄ ̄ ̄
8. (1) By whom were you given permission to enter ? Subject Verb Ob-
(Passive) ject ® Active
The sentence is in Simple Past Tense. (Active) Men, women and children throng the shops ...
who in Active form becomes by whom in the Pas- ̄ ̄ ̄
sive. Subject Verb Object