AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
(a) Regarding ‘to suggest’, ‘to propose’ * The R.S. in the Direct (Having verb + sub) is changed
(i.e. when ‘let’ is meant for ’to suggest’ or ‘to propose’) into the R.S. in the Indirect (Sub + verb) and it be-
* Say / said is changed into propose / proposed; sug- comes Assertive.
gest / suggested. Optative = Verb + Sub
* If their is an object in the R.V., the object is used after Assertive = Sub + Verb
adding ‘to’—to proposed / suggested. As, * Should / might is used in the Indirect.
Suggested to her. Remember : Should + V1
Proposed to me.
= Should go
* ‘that’ is used in front of the R.S. instead of inverted
commas (“ ”) Should come etc.
* (Should + V1) is used after the subject of the R.S. * Use pray / prayed with ‘God’, ‘Almighty’.
* If there is no object after the R.V., we use (V+ing) after Exclamatory Sentences
suggest / propose. * Generally exclamatory senten-ces begin with Alas /
Remember : Ah / How / Hurrah / Oh / What.
For the structure having an ‘Object’ after the R.V. * Sentences are in Assertive (i.e. Subject + Verb)
Sub + Propose / suggest + to + Object + that + Sub * Sign of Exclamation (!) is used As, You said, “Well done!
(sub of the R.S.) + Should + V 1 my friends”.
But, for the structure having no object after the R.V. : Rules for changing from Direct into Indirect :
Subject + Propose / suggest + (V+ing) * ‘Said’ is changed into exclaimed / exclaimed with joy /
Jyoti said, “Let us go home”. exclaimed with sorrow / exclaimed with grief / ex-
- Direct claimed with regret/ shouted with applause / cried
First of all, we notice, there is no object after the R.V. out / eagerly wished, according to ‘feeling’.
(i.e. said). Hence we change ‘said’ into ‘suggested’. * Inverted commas (‘ ’ or “ ”) deleted
Jyoti suggested............... * ‘That’ is used to connect the R.V. and the R.S.
If there is no object after ‘suggested’, there will be * Sign of Exclamation (!) is changed into Full Stop (.).
(V+ing) after ’suggested’ (i.e. go+ing)
* Great / very can also be used as per need.
Jyoti suggested going home.
For Example :
He said, “What a pity!” - Direct
Now, another example, Jyoti said to
her friends, “Let us go home”.- Direct He exclaimed that it was a great pity. - Indirect
Jyoti proposed / suggested to her friends that they If the R.V. is in the past tense, the R.S. will also be in
should go home. - Indirect the past tense.
Oh! How did this change take place? Exercise! (Of brain). Sentences with question tags
Remember the structure of the sentence beginning with * Example of question tags -
‘let’ and its changed from in the Indirect speech : He said to me, “you are going to the cinema, aren’t
Sub + Propose / suggested + to + Object + that + Sub you?”
(Sub of the R.S.) + Should + V1 * In Indirect speech we leave out question tags (i.e.
Note : Do not use ‘to’ after propose / suggest. question tags should not be used in Indirect speech)
Use of ‘let’ in the context of ‘to allow’. * Otherwise, we apply the process, used for changing
* Say to / said to is changed into order / ordered, re-
quest / requested, as per need. He asked me whether I was going to the cinema.
* We begin the R.S. with ‘to allow’.
Sentences with ‘must’, ‘mustn’t or needn’t.
* ‘To’ is used in front of the main verb of the R.S.
* If ‘must’ reflects the feeling of natural law or universal
* Sometimes ‘let’ is changed into ‘to let’ and is used in truth, ‘must’ is not changed in the Indirect speech.
If ‘must’ indicates present / future meaning, must is
They said to the teacher, “Let us go home”. - Di- changed into had to / would have to / has to / will
rect have to etc.
They requested the teacher to allow then to go home * Mustn’t and needn’t are generally not changed in the
Optative Sentences Indirect Speech.
Rules for changing the Direct Speech into the Indi- * ‘Said’ is not changed. (But ‘told’ can also be used).
rect Speech * ‘that’ is used to connect the R.V. and the R.S.
* Optative sentences have wishes / desires / curses * We use ‘respectfully’ and delet, sir/madam etc. in
etc. As, People said, “God save the king”. the Indirect speech.
* Said is changed to prayed / wished. Rupa said, “Sir, May I go home?”
* ‘That’ is used in front of the R.S. - Direct
* Inverted commas deleted Rupa respectfully asked whether he could go home.