(a) Regarding ‘to suggest’, ‘to propose’                        * The R.S. in the Direct (Having verb + sub) is changed
      (i.e. when ‘let’ is meant for ’to suggest’ or ‘to propose’)        into the R.S. in the Indirect (Sub + verb) and it be-
   * Say / said is changed into propose / proposed; sug-                 comes Assertive.
      gest / suggested.                                                  Optative = Verb + Sub
   * If their is an object in the R.V., the object is used after         Assertive = Sub + Verb
      adding ‘to’—to proposed / suggested. As,                        * Should / might is used in the Indirect.
      Suggested to her.                                                  Remember : Should + V1
      Proposed to me.
                                                                         = Should go
   * ‘that’ is used in front of the R.S. instead of inverted
      commas (“ ”)                                                       Should come etc.
   * (Should + V1) is used after the subject of the R.S.              * Use pray / prayed with ‘God’, ‘Almighty’.
   * If there is no object after the R.V., we use (V+ing) after     Exclamatory Sentences
      suggest / propose.                                              * Generally exclamatory senten-ces begin with Alas /
Remember :                                                               Ah / How / Hurrah / Oh / What.
      For the structure having an ‘Object’ after the R.V.             * Sentences are in Assertive (i.e. Subject + Verb)
      Sub + Propose / suggest + to + Object + that + Sub              * Sign of Exclamation (!) is used As, You said, “Well done!
(sub of the R.S.) + Should + V 1                                         my friends”.
      But, for the structure having no object after the R.V. :      Rules for changing from Direct into Indirect :
      Subject + Propose / suggest + (V+ing)                           * ‘Said’ is changed into exclaimed / exclaimed with joy /
      Jyoti said, “Let us go home”.                                      exclaimed with sorrow / exclaimed with grief / ex-
                                                           - Direct      claimed with regret/ shouted with applause / cried
      First of all, we notice, there is no object after the R.V.         out / eagerly wished, according to ‘feeling’.
(i.e. said). Hence we change ‘said’ into ‘suggested’.                 * Inverted commas (‘ ’ or “ ”) deleted
      Jyoti suggested...............                                  * ‘That’ is used to connect the R.V. and the R.S.
      If there is no object after ‘suggested’, there will be          * Sign of Exclamation (!) is changed into Full Stop (.).
(V+ing) after ’suggested’ (i.e. go+ing)
                                                                      * Great / very can also be used as per need.
      Jyoti suggested going home.
                                                                         For Example :
                                                        - Indirect
                                                                         He said, “What a pity!” - Direct
      Now, another example,                       Jyoti said to
her friends, “Let us go home”.- Direct                                   He exclaimed that it was a great pity. - Indirect
      Jyoti proposed / suggested to her friends that they                If the R.V. is in the past tense, the R.S. will also be in
should go home.                - Indirect                           the past tense.
      Oh! How did this change take place? Exercise! (Of brain).     Sentences with question tags
      Remember the structure of the sentence beginning with              * Example of question tags -
‘let’ and its changed from in the Indirect speech :                      He said to me, “you are going to the cinema, aren’t
      Sub + Propose / suggested + to + Object + that + Sub          you?”
(Sub of the R.S.) + Should + V1                                          * In Indirect speech we leave out question tags (i.e.
      Note : Do not use ‘to’ after propose / suggest.               question tags should not be used in Indirect speech)
      Use of ‘let’ in the context of ‘to allow’.                         * Otherwise, we apply the process, used for changing
                                                                    Interrogative sentences.
      Rules :
   * Say to / said to is changed into order / ordered, re-
      quest / requested, as per need.                                    He asked me whether I was going to the cinema.
   * We begin the R.S. with ‘to allow’.
                                                                    Sentences with ‘must’, ‘mustn’t or needn’t.
   * ‘To’ is used in front of the main verb of the R.S.
                                                                      * If ‘must’ reflects the feeling of natural law or universal
   * Sometimes ‘let’ is changed into ‘to let’ and is used in             truth, ‘must’ is not changed in the Indirect speech.
      the sentence.
                                                                         If ‘must’ indicates present / future meaning, must is
      They said to the teacher, “Let us go home”.             - Di-      changed into had to / would have to / has to / will
rect                                                                     have to etc.
      They requested the teacher to allow then to go home             * Mustn’t and needn’t are generally not changed in the
Optative Sentences                                                       Indirect Speech.
      Rules for changing the Direct Speech into the Indi-             * ‘Said’ is not changed. (But ‘told’ can also be used).
rect Speech                                                           * ‘that’ is used to connect the R.V. and the R.S.
   * Optative sentences have wishes / desires / curses                   * We use ‘respectfully’ and delet, sir/madam etc. in
      etc. As, People said, “God save the king”.                    the Indirect speech.
   * Said is changed to prayed / wished.                                 Rupa said, “Sir, May I go home?”
   * ‘That’ is used in front of the R.S.                                                                                   - Direct
   * Inverted commas deleted                                             Rupa respectfully asked whether he could go home.