AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Thus as a general rule we change: * Inverted commas (“ ” or ‘ ’) deleted.
(A) (B) * If the R.S. is Yes/No question, if / whether is used
Now ® then before the R.S. in the Indirect Speech. As,
This ® that * He said to me, “Is Gopal Your brother”? - Direct.
These ® those He asked me if Gopal was my brother. - Indirect
Ago ® before If the R.S. is Wh-question (the R.S. beginning with who
/ what / how / where / when / why), no conjunction
Thus ® so
is used before the R.S. As,
Here ® there He said, “where is the book?”
Hence ® thence - Direct
To-day ® That day He asked me where the book was. - Indirect
Tomorrow® the next day * The R.S. becomes Assertive.
Yesterday ® the previous day/ Interrogative R.S. changes into Assertive R.S.
the day before Verb + Subject ® Subject + Verb
Last night® the previous As, Nitu said to me, “When will he sleep?”
night/ the night Nitu asked me when he would sleep.
before *Will changes into would
Next weekthe following week Shall changes into should
If the tense of the R.S. changes, the following words *In the end ‘?’ (Mark of Interrogative) is deleted and full
also change stop (.) is used instead of ‘?’
(A) (B) * Note :Do not use ‘asked to’. Use object after ‘ask’ - ask
Shall should me, asked him etc.
Will would General rules for changing the Direct Speech of Im-
Can could perative sentences into the Indirect speech :
May might * Imperative sentence has ‘Order’, ‘Request’, ‘Negative
Am/is was command’.
Are were * This type of sentence begins with - Go, Bring (with
Makes made verb)
Would help would have helped * Negative command begins with ‘do not’ or ‘don’t.’
Note : Universal or habitual facts can be expressed only As,
in the Simple Present (Present Indefinite) He said, “Don’t be foolish”.
For example His friend said to him, “Join his party”. etc.
He said, “The earth moved round the sun.” — Rules regarding order / request :
Incorrect * Say / said is changed into order / ordered, request /
He said, “The earth moves round the sun.” — requested; ask/ asked, beg / begged, tell /told etc.
Correct * Inverted commas deleted
He said, “Honesty is the best policy.” — Direct * ‘to’ is used in front of the R.S.
He said that honesty is the best policy. — Indirect * Kindly / please is not used in the Indirect speech,
In direct speech the R.S. begins with capital letter, but because we do not use kindly / please with request.
in Indirect the R.S. begins with small letters, barring a few Rules regarding Negative Command
exception (as, ’I’) * Say / said is changed into ask / asked, tell / told,
Indirect Narration of Assertive Sentences remind / reminded, as per need.
He said, “Man is mortal”.— Direct * ‘do’ is avoided in the Indirect speech.
The R.S. of the sentence bears universal fact : * Negative word ‘Not’ is used before ‘to’.
“Man is mortal”. * Please / kindly is not used in the Indirect speech.
He said (Ist Part of the sentence) is in past tense. Ac- As,
cording to rules, the tense of the R.S. Changes, if the R.V. Mohan said to me, “Do not forget to tell her”. - Direct
is in the Past Tense. But, if the R.S. is a universal fact (i.e. Mohan told / asked / reminded me not to forget to tell
in simple present tense), the tense of R.S. does not change. her. - Direct I advised him
Thus, both tje parts of the given sentence remain unchanged not to go abroad for further studies. - Correct
while changing it from direct to indirect. The only change * Remember,
can take place is the use of that between the R.V. and the
Forbid / Forbade + Object + to + V2
R.S. and inverted commas (“ ”) will be deleted.
Prohibit / prohibited, prevent / prevented + Object +
He said that Man is mortal.
From + V(ing)
Sita said to him, “Don’t go out”.- Direct
General rules for changing the Direct speech of In-
Sita forbade him to go out.- Indirect
terrogative Sentences into the Indirect Speech.
*Rules for changing the sentences beginning with let
* R.V. ‘Say’ is changed into ask, enquire (of), want to
from the Direct to the Indirect :