AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
PLU. 2. Compound Prepositions :
But in case, the Noun is an Uncountable Noun, Both (i) Prepositions formed by fixing a Preposition (Usually
Noun and Verb should be in Singular. a=no, or be=by) to a Noun, an Adjective, or an Adverb :
(i) Some money is needed Above, across, along, amidst, around, before, below,
̄ ̄ beneath, between, into (in+to), besides, outside, within,
NOUN VERB without,
(UNCOUNT. SING. (ii) Two or more words habitually thrown together and ending
SING. with a simple preposition may be called compound prepo-
(ii) Lots of milk is available. sitions.
They are -
(UNCOUNT. SING. By means of; because of; in fornt of, in opposition to;
SING. inspite of; on accouunt of; with reference to; with re-
22. If a Countable Noun is used after half of, one third gard to, for the sake of, on behalf of, instead of, in lieu
of, two thirds of or three fourths of, then this Noun takes of, in the place of, with a view to, in the event of; etc.
the Plural form and is followed by a Plural Verb. 3. Participle Prepositions : concerning, considering, ex-
For example, cepting, judging, regarding, respecting etc. belong to
Half of the hotels are closed. this class.
̄ ̄ To have a clear comprehension of this topic one must
NOUN VERB have a regular practice of words associated with preposi-
(COUNT. PLURAL tions.
23. More than one is always followed by Singular Noun NARRATION
and Singular Verb.
He said, “I am very busy now”.
More than one room is vacant.
̄ ̄ When the Verb in one sentence reports what is said by
NOUN VERB some speaker in another sentence, the Verb in the first
Note- But, after the formation — sentence (He ‘said’) is called the Reporting Verb (R.V.),
and what is said in the second sentence is called the Re-
the verb is always in Plural Number. “(I am very busy now)”.
More teachers than one are late.
We may report the words of a speaker in two ways :
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ (i) We may quote his actual words. This is called direct
MORE NOUN THAN VERB speech.
24. If there or it is used as Introductory Subject, then (ii) We may report what he said without quoting his exact
the Verb used after it is related to the Noun used after the words. This is called indirect speech.
Verb. ‘Speech’ = Narration.
For example, He said, “I am very busy now”. — Direct
(i) There was a king.
He said that he was very busy then. — Indirect
(ii) There were two kings.
25. If a “NUMERAL + PLURAL NOUN” denotes a defi- Note :
nite amount, distance, deposit, weight or height, etc, then (i) The Tense of the Reporting Verb (R.V.) is never changed.
the Verb used must be in Singular. (ii) If the R.V. is in Present or Future Tense, the tense of
For example, the verb in the R.S. is not changed at all.
Two thousand rupees (iii) If the R.V. is in Past Tense, the tense of the Verb in
̄ ̄ the R.S. must be changed to one or other of the four
NUMERAL NOUN forms of the Past Tense.
PLU. Rules for Changing Direct Speech into Indirect
is a handsome amount. When the R.V. is in the Past Tense, the tense of R.S.
̄ changes according to this rule :
Simpe Present is changed Simpe Past
Present Progressive into Past
(ii) Ten tonnes of coal is enough for me.
PREPOSITION Present Perfect into Past Perfect
Preposition : Word governing (and usually preceding) Present Perfect into Past Perfect
a Noun or Pronoun and expressing a relation to another Continuous Continuous
word, as in : ‘the man on the platform’, ‘came after dinner’, Simple Past into Past Perfect
’went by train’, etc. Past progressive into Past Perfect
Prepositions may be divided into following categories Continuous
as per their formation : In the R.S., when the present tense is changed into
1. Simple preposition : of, on, up, off, to, by, at, for, the past, an Adjective, Verb, or Adverb expressing near-
per, with, in, from, etc. ness is similarly changed into the expressing distance.