INFINITIVE                                                           5. If but is used as a Preposition and is preceded by the
    Infinitive can take two forms in Active Voice :               Verb “to do”, then but is followed by a Bare Infinitive.
                                                                      For example,
                                                                         He did nothing but wander.
                                                                                                ̄       ̄
                                                                                               BUT V1
    Infinitive can be used as —
    (i) Subject                                                    SPLIT INFINITVE
    For example,                                                        An adverb or adverbial phrase placed between to and
    To swim is a good exercise.                                   V1 is called Split Infinitive which should be avoided.
           ̄                                                                                                            Incorrect-
       SUB.                                                       Sam agreed to thoroughly go into the matter.               ̄
    (ii) Object                                                         ̄  ̄
    For example,                                                                    TO       ADV. V1
    No one likes to die.                                             Correct- Sam agreed to go thoroughly into the matter.
                                                                     ̄                             ̄
                                                                                                  TO V1
                                                                      This shows that if there is a TO- Infinitive in a sentence
    (iii) Complement to the Verb.
                                                                  we cann’t use to and V1 apart, they should be used to-
    For example,
    He is to go.
          COMP.                                                       The word that partcipates in the function of a Verb as
                                                                  well as in that of an Adjective in a sentence, is called a
    There are two types of Infinitive - To - Infinitives and
Bare Infinitives (Infinitive without to). There are some spe-
cific cases where To-Infinitives are used. Similarly, Bare            (i) It is a large building.
Infinitives are also used under Certain Conditions. In Com-                                   ̄
mon Errors/Phrase Replacement, questions are asked on                                    NOUN
the uses of To-Infinitives and Bare Infinitives. Now, we shall     (ii) Building a house I lived in it
discuss this.                                                                   ̄
    1. Bare Infinitive is used with let, bid, watch, behold,            PARTICIPLE
see, feel, make, etc.                                                 Broadly speaking there are two types of Participles :
    For example,                                                  Present Participles and Past Participles.
    Correct- Let him sit there.                                       1. Present Participle- A participle which is formed by
                            ̄                                      adding-ing to the Verb and which states an action as going
                          V1                                      on or incomplete is called a Present Participle.
    Incorrect- Let him to sit there                                   For example,
                             ̄                                         (i) Who set the ball rolling?
                       TO + V1                                                                      ̄
    2. After Modal Auxiliaries (can could, may, might, shall,                                 PAR (Pre.)
should, will, would, must, dare not, need not) we use Bare                               (ii) The enemy caught is napping.
Infinitive.                                                                                             ̄
    For example,                                                                                    PAR (Pre.)
           I shall go to the station.                                 The Present (or Active) Participle ending in - ing is used
               ̄      ̄                                             in forming Continuous Tense.
            SHALL V1                                                  For example,
    But with dare, need, ought etc. we use To-Infinitive.             (i) I am going.
    For example,                                                      (ii) She was going.
    (i) I dare to go there                                            2. Past Participle- A participle which is formed by add-
    (ii) You ought to go there                                    ing -ed, -t, -n, -en or -ne and which denotes a completed
    3. Bare Infinitive is also used after had better, had rather, action, is called a Past Participle.
and as soon ..... as ...., had sooner etc.                            For example,
    For example,                                                      (i) He is a retired man.
        He had better go now.                                         (ii) A burnt child dreads the fire.
                          ̄                                            (iii) He is a known man.
                         V1                                           (iv) It was a rotten fish.
    4. Bare Infinitive is used after conjunction, than.               (v) I dislike half -done work.
    For example,                                                      In these sentences, participles are formed by adding -
    He had better read than write.                                d, - ed, -t, -n, -en or -ne to the Verb and they state an
                             ̄       ̄                              action as completed. They are called Past Participles. The
                                                                  Past (Passive) Participle is used with an Auxiliary Verb to
                           THAN V1
                                                                  form a Perfect tense, active or passive (active, with tense of