AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
INFINITIVE 5. If but is used as a Preposition and is preceded by the
Infinitive can take two forms in Active Voice : Verb “to do”, then but is followed by a Bare Infinitive.
He did nothing but wander.
Infinitive can be used as —
(i) Subject SPLIT INFINITVE
For example, An adverb or adverbial phrase placed between to and
To swim is a good exercise. V1 is called Split Infinitive which should be avoided.
SUB. Sam agreed to thoroughly go into the matter. ̄
(ii) Object ̄ ̄
For example, TO ADV. V1
No one likes to die. Correct- Sam agreed to go thoroughly into the matter.
This shows that if there is a TO- Infinitive in a sentence
(iii) Complement to the Verb.
we cann’t use to and V1 apart, they should be used to-
He is to go.
COMP. The word that partcipates in the function of a Verb as
well as in that of an Adjective in a sentence, is called a
There are two types of Infinitive - To - Infinitives and
Bare Infinitives (Infinitive without to). There are some spe-
cific cases where To-Infinitives are used. Similarly, Bare (i) It is a large building.
Infinitives are also used under Certain Conditions. In Com- ̄
mon Errors/Phrase Replacement, questions are asked on NOUN
the uses of To-Infinitives and Bare Infinitives. Now, we shall (ii) Building a house I lived in it
discuss this. ̄
1. Bare Infinitive is used with let, bid, watch, behold, PARTICIPLE
see, feel, make, etc. Broadly speaking there are two types of Participles :
For example, Present Participles and Past Participles.
Correct- Let him sit there. 1. Present Participle- A participle which is formed by
̄ adding-ing to the Verb and which states an action as going
V1 on or incomplete is called a Present Participle.
Incorrect- Let him to sit there For example,
̄ (i) Who set the ball rolling?
TO + V1 ̄
2. After Modal Auxiliaries (can could, may, might, shall, PAR (Pre.)
should, will, would, must, dare not, need not) we use Bare (ii) The enemy caught is napping.
For example, PAR (Pre.)
I shall go to the station. The Present (or Active) Participle ending in - ing is used
̄ ̄ in forming Continuous Tense.
SHALL V1 For example,
But with dare, need, ought etc. we use To-Infinitive. (i) I am going.
For example, (ii) She was going.
(i) I dare to go there 2. Past Participle- A participle which is formed by add-
(ii) You ought to go there ing -ed, -t, -n, -en or -ne and which denotes a completed
3. Bare Infinitive is also used after had better, had rather, action, is called a Past Participle.
and as soon ..... as ...., had sooner etc. For example,
For example, (i) He is a retired man.
He had better go now. (ii) A burnt child dreads the fire.
̄ (iii) He is a known man.
V1 (iv) It was a rotten fish.
4. Bare Infinitive is used after conjunction, than. (v) I dislike half -done work.
For example, In these sentences, participles are formed by adding -
He had better read than write. d, - ed, -t, -n, -en or -ne to the Verb and they state an
̄ ̄ action as completed. They are called Past Participles. The
Past (Passive) Participle is used with an Auxiliary Verb to
form a Perfect tense, active or passive (active, with tense of