AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Structure : (iv) Will must not be confused with want / wish / would.
Negative : Sub + was / were + not + V4 (V + ing) Will expresses an intention + a decision to fulfill it :
Interrogative : Was / were + Sub + V4 (V + ing) ... ? Note : To express determination or intention we use
(’was’ is used) (‘were’ is used) will instead of ‘shall’.
Past Perfect Tense Want / wish / would like merely express desire. They
Structure : (Sub + had + V3 + ....) do not give any information about intended actions :
Use : (v) Structure : Subject + is / are / am / about to / to
(i) The past perfect is the past equivalent of the present + V1
perfect or the past perfect describes an action completed Future Continuous
before a certain moment in the past; as, The Future Continuous is used :
I had seen her last three years before. (i) For an action going on at sometime in future.
(Indicator : an action completed before a certain mo- (ii) It is also used for future events that are planned.
ment in the past) Future Perfect Tense
(ii) Past perfect is used with ’I wish’, ’as if’, ’as though’ Structure : Subject + Shall / will + have + V3 + ............
to indicate the unfulfilled desire, condition, wish of the past. Use :
As, The Future perfect is used :
I wish I had passed in civil services Exam.
(i) to indicate the completion of an action by a certain
(iii) Present perfect tenses in direct speech become future time;
past perfect tenses in the indirect speech provided the in-
(ii) indicate the prior information of a person about a
troductory verb is in the past tense :
He, said, ‘I have been in Darbhanga for ten years’ = He
Note : Future Perfect Conti-nuous Tense is not much
said that he had been in Darbhanga for ten years.
Simple past tense in direct speech usually change simi-
larly : INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLE & GERUND
She said, ‘I knew O.P. very well’. A Verb may be Finite (limited) or Infinite (unlimited). It is
Finite when it is limited by the Number and Person of its
She said that she had known O.P. Very well.
Subject. On the other hand, a Verb which has not Subject
Affirmative : I had written him a letter.
and is therefore not limited by Number and Person, is called
Negative : I had not writer him a letter.
a Verb Infinite.
Interrogative : Had he written a letter to me.
Negative : Sub + had not + V3 + ........
Interrogative : Had + Sub + V3 + ............?
Past Perfect Continuous
Subject + had + been + V4 (V+ing) + ............. For /
Since + Time
The past perfect continuous tense is used for :
An action that began before a certain point in the past
and continued up to that time; as,
It was now five and she was tired because she had For example,
been working since dawn. (i) He is going to school.
FUTURE TENSE (ii) They are going to school.
Future Indefinite In both these sentences going remains going. But is
Structure : Subject + shall / will + V1 + ............ turns into are. This transformation of is into are is not due
Negative : Subject + shall / will + not + V1 + .... to the change of the Tense, but due to the change in the
Interrogative : Will + Subject + V1 + ...................? Number. When Subject was Singular, the Verb was is. When
Use of shall / will Subject becomes Plural (they), the Verb becomes are (Plu-
‘Shall’ is used only with ’I’ and ‘we’ and ‘will’ is used ral). So we find that the form of the Verb is (to be) is changed
with all other numbers and persons : with the change in the Subject. It may also be proved that
But in Interrogative sentences ‘will’ is used with all the the Verb is (to be) is also changed with the change in the
three persons (I, we, you, he, they). Person of the Subject. But the Verb going remains con-
stant and it can be changed only when tense is changed.
* Simple Future Tense is used for :
So, Verb is (to be) is Finite and going is Non-Finite. Verb is
(i) an action that has still to take place.
has a Subject and is limited by the Number and Person of
I shall go to Chennai tomorrow.
the Subject. But going is not related to any Subject in this
They will play cricket tomorrow.
(ii) When the future is coloured with intention, the go-
As you know, there are three types of Non-Finite Verbs.
ing to + infinitive construction is preferred.
(To some grammarians there are four types). The three types
In case of compulsion.
are : Infinitive, Participle and Gerund.
(iii) Structure : Subject + has / have + to + V 1