AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Þ‘Or’ is used when you are telling someone what will no sooner. This rule is widely accepted in formal usage.
happen if they don’t follow your instruction or advice: 11. Lest
Don’t put anything plastic in the oven or it will probably ‘Should’ is used after lest (not may/ will).
7. That TIME AND TENSE
That is a Conjunction. It connects two sentences: Tense shows :
I know. He is wicked. (Two separate sentences) (i) the time of an action,
I know that he is wicked. (ii) its degree of completeness.
That is used after some verbs, nouns, and adjectives A verb has three main Tenses :
to introduce a clause : (i) the Present
She suggested that I telephones you ---- (ii) the Past and
That can be the complement : (iii) the Future
The main thing is that you’re satisfied. I write a letter to please you.
See, the above sentence without ‘that’ : You wrote a letter to my brother.
The main thing is you’re satisfied. I shall write a letter to you.
(The above sentence seems unusual). ‘Write’ refers to present time.
Hence the use of ’that’ as the complement is prevalent. ‘Wrote’ refers to past time.
To express a consequence, Result, or Effect; as, ‘Shall write’ refers to future time.
I am so weak that I cannot walk. To each tense there are four different forms
‘That’ Conjunction should never be used before a sen- (i) Simple, (ii) Continuous,
tence in Direct Narration, nor before Interrogative Adverb (iii) Perfect,
or Pronoun in Indirect narration. The above sentence is in (iv) Perfect Continuous
Indirect narration. ’How’ is an interrogative adverb. Remem- PRESENT TENSE
ber the rule of narration. ’that’ or any conjunction is not Simple Present (Present Indefinite)
used before wh-questions (where, which, what, how etc.) Structure :
Hence, ’that’ shuld be omitted. Sub + V1 / V5 + ...........,
8. But Sub + is / are / am + Complement
Þ Use of but as a conjunction : The simple present tense is used :
It never rains but it pours (i) To express general truths; as,
Þ As an adversative conjunction of the co-ordinating The earth revolves round the sun.
class : (ii) To express a habitual action; as,
He is intelligent but cruel. I go to school daily.
Þ Note : ’Although / though ......... but’ is not used. I get up before sunrise.
9. Not only - but also (iii) In vivid narrative, as substitute for the simple past;
Not only --- but also can go immediately before the as,
words or expression they modify. Immediately the minister hurries to New Delhi.
Not only + Verb ....... but also + Verb (Neither not (iv) To introduce quotations; as,
only + Noun ....... but also + Verb nor Not only + Verb Vivekananda says, ‘To me every particle of my moth-
....... but also + Noun is possible) erland is holy’.
Not only + Noun ....... but also + Noun. etc. (v) It is used, instead of the Simple Future Tense, in clause
We go there not only in winter, but also in summer. of time and of Condition : When, as soon as, after in
10. When or before is used after Hardly / Scarcely: case, as long as, if, unless, until, till etc. as,
“He had scarcely (or hardly) heard the news before If he comes we shall go to Delhi.
(Not than) he wept aloud”. Present Progressive / Imperfect / Continuous
These three expressions (hardly, scarcely and no Structure : Subject + is / am / are / + V4 (v+ing)
sooner) can be used (often with a past perfect tense) to +......
suggest that one thing happened very soon after another. As — I am reading a book.
Note the sentence structure :
̄ ̄ ̄
hardly ....... when / before
Sub. am V4 (V+ing) .....
scarcely ....... when / before
The Present Continuous is used:
no sooner ....... than
(i) For an action going on at the time of speaking; as,
I had hardly / scarcely closed my eyes when the phone
rang. I am working.
She was hardly / scarcely inside the house before (ii) For an action that is planned or arranged to take place
the kids started sreaming. in the near future; as.
I had no sooner closed the door than some body IGNOU is going to launch a new postgraduate
knocked“ programme in English.
Þ Therefore, from examination point of view, one should (iii) For a temporary action which may not be actually hap-
use when / before with hardly / scarcely and than with pening at the time of speaking; as