AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
— He fled where his pursuers could not follow him. even if there is a Past Tense in the principal clause, it may
Let them sow anything. They will reap its fruit. be followed by any tense required by the sense in subor-
— As men sow, so shall they reap. dinate clause.
You are strong. I am equally strong. For example,
— I am as strong as you are. He liked you better than he likes me.
He was not there. I spoke to his brother for that He helped him more than he helps his own children.
reason. I then saw him oftener than I see him now.
— As he ws not there, I spoke to his brother. He valued his friendship more than he values mine.
We wish to live. We eat for that purpose. A Present or Future Tense in the principal clause may
— We eat that we may live. be followed by any Tense required by the sense.
He was quite tired. He could scarcely stand. For example,
— He was so tired that he could scarcely stand. He thinks that she is there.
Don"t eat too much. You will be ill. He thinks that she was there.
— If you eat too much you will be ill. He thinks that she will be there.
He began late. He finished first. He will think that she is there.
— He finished first though he began late. He will think that she was there.
I shall come.My being alone is a condition. He will think that she will be there.
— I shall come if I am alone. But in sentences where the subordinate clause de-
I must know all the facts. I cannot help you oth- notes purpose, if the verb in the principal clause is Present
erwise. or Future the verb in the subordinate clause must be
— Before I can help you, I must know all the facts. Present.
He is superstitious. He is equally wicked. For example,
— He is as superstitious as he is wicked. I eat that I may live.
I shall nurse him so that he can live.
THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES
The Sequence of Tenses is the principle in accordance CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES
with which the Tense of the verb in a subordinate clause
follows the Tense of the verb in the principal clause. Simple Sentences
The sequence of Tenses applies chiefly to Adverb Two wickets fell at twenty.
Clauses of purpose and Noun Clauses. Rome was not built in a day.
A Past Tense in the principal clause is followed by a In these two sentences, there is only one finite verb.
Past Tense in the subordinate clause. Finite means full i.e., a verb with a subject.
For example, Hence, a sentence that contains only one finite verb
He hinted that he wanted money. as called a Simple Sentence. So a simple sentence con-
She replied that she felt better. tains only one subject and one predicate.
I found out that he was guilty.
He saw that the clock had stopped. Complex Sentences
He replied that he would come. I cam to know that six wickets had fallen before
I never thought that I should see him again. lunch.
I took care that he should not hear me. The team that wins the toss usually chooses to
The climbed higher that they might get a better view. bat.
I worked hard. That I might succeed. When the minth-wicket partnership was broken,
Exceptions : (i) A Past Tense in the principal clause I felt that we might hope to win the match.
may be followed by a Present Tense in the subordinate In each of these three sentences above has one Main
clause when the subordinate clause expresses a universal or Principal clause and one subordinate clause or more
truth. depending on it.
For example, All these sentences are called Complex sentences.
Newton discoverd that the force of gravitation makes Hence, a sentence that contains only one Main or Prin-
apples fall. cipal clause and one or more than one subordinate clause
Galileo maintained that the earth moves round the is called a Complex Sentence.
Educlid proved that the three angles of a trinagle are Double and Multiple Sentences
equal to two right angles. Actually, there are only two kinds of sentences : Simple
He said that honesty is the best policy. and Complex sentences. But, others are a mixture or com-
(ii) When the subordinate clause is introduced by than, pound of these two kinds.