AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
(i) Cumulative; (iv) Conjunctions which express an inference are called
(ii) Adversative ; Illative.
(iii) Alternative; and For example,
(iv) Illative Abdul is ill. He cannot study. He still attends
Let us take a few sentences : school.
Night came on. The room grew dark. — Abdul is ill and cannot study, yet he still attends
— Night came on and the room grew dark. school.
He is a fool. He is a knave. He saw the boy in the street. He stopped to speak
to him. He gave him a rupee.
— He is a fool and a knave.
— Seeing the boy in the street he stopped to speak
— He is both a fool and a knove.
to him and gave him a ruppe.
— He is not only a fool but also a knave.
Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a
— He is a fool as well as a knave. single Complex sentence
The wind blew. the rain fell. The lightening flashed.
Subordinate Clause a Noun Clause
— The wind blew, the rain fell and the lightening For example,
You are drunk. That aggravates your offence.
It is found that the conjunction and simply adds one
— That you are drunk aggravates your offence.
statement to another.
The conjunctions both ... and, not only.... but also, as He will be late. That is certain.
well as are emphatic forms of and do the same work. — It is certain that he will be late.
(i) Conjunctions which merely add one statement to You are repentant. I will not forget it.
another are called Cumulative. — I will not forget that you are repentant.
For example, He may be innocent. I do not know.
He is slow. He is sure. — I do not know whether he is inocent.
— He is slow but he is sure. He is short-sighted. Otherwise he is fit for the
I was arroyed. I kept quiet. post.
— I was annoyed, still (or) yet I kept quiet. — Except that he is short-sighted he is fit for the
He failed. He persevered. post.
— He failed, nevertheless he perserved. The clouds would disperse. that was our hope.
Our hope was cheering.
I shall not oppose your design. I cannot approve
of it. — Our hope, that the clouds would disperse, was
— I shall not oppose your design; I cannot however
approve of it. The game was lost. It was the consequence of his
He was all right. He was fatigued. carelessness.
— He was all right; only he was fatigued. — The consequence of his carelessness was that the
game was lost.
(ii) Conjunctions which express opposition or contrast
between two statements are called Adversative. Subordinate Clause An Adjective Clause
For example, For example,
Make haste. You will be late. A fox once met a lion. Th fox had never seen a
— Make haste or you will be late.
— A fox who had never seen a lion before met him.
Came in. Go out.
She keeps her ornaments in a safe. This is the
— Come in or go out.
— Either come in or go out.
— This is the safe where she keeps her ornaments.
Do not be a borrower. Do not be a lender.
A cottager and his wife had a her. The hen laid an
— Do not be a borrower or a lender.
egg everyday. The egg was golden.
— Be neither a borrower nor a lender.
— A cottager and his wife had a hen which laid a
(iii) Conjunctions which express a choice between two golden egg everyday.
alternatives are called Alternative.
Subordinate Clause an Adverb Clause
He was obstinate. He was punished.
Queen Victoria died in 1901. The Prince of Wales
— He was obstinate, therefore he was punished. thereafter became king.
I cannot see. It is very dark. — When Queen Victoria died in 1901, the prince of
— I cannot see, for it is very dark. Wales became king.
It is raining heavily. I will take an umbrella with I waited for my friend. I waited till his arrival.
me. — I waited for my friend until he came.
— It is raining heavily, so I will take an umbrella He fled somewhere. His pursuers could not fol-
with me. low him.