AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Superlative : The pacific is the deepest ocean. — Jumping up he ran away.
Comparative : The Pacific is deeper than any other He was tired of play. He sat down to rest.
ocean. — Tired on being tired of play he sat down to rest.
Superlative : Abraham Lincoln was the greatest Ameri- (ii) By using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition
can ever lived. For example,
Comparative : Abraham Lincoln was greater than any This is my friend. His name is Tom.
other American ever lived. — This is my friend Tom.
(e) Interchange of one part of speech for another. William I defeated Harold and Senlac in 1066.
Preposition : I have not seen him since Monday last. Harold was the successor of Edward the Confes-
Adverb : I saw him on Monday last but I have not sor.
seen him since then. — William I Defeated Harold, the successor of Ed-
Adverb : He gets up early in the morning. ward the Confessor, at Senlac in 1066.
Adjective : He gets up in early morning. This town was once a prosperous sea-port. It is
(f) Replacement of one word by another. now a heap of ruins.
1. But : help : who not : which not : unless : — This town once a prosperous sea-port, is now a
I could not but feel sorry for you. heap of ruins.
I could not help feeling sorry for you. (iii) By using a Preposition with a Noun or Gerund :
There is no mother but loves her child. For example,
The moon rose. Their journey was not ended.
There is no mother who does not love her child.
— The moon rose before the end of their journey.
But for your help, I could not have finished the work.
He had failed many times. He still hopes to suc-
Unless you helped me, I couldnot have finished the ceed.
— In spite of many failures he hopes to succeed.
2. Preferable : better : superior : prefer :
Her husband died. She heard the news. She
Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven. fainted.
To reign in hell is preferable to serving in heaven. — On hearing the news of her husband"s death she
I prefer riding to in heaven swimming. fainted.
I like riding better than swimming. (iv) By using the Nominative Absolute Construction
He is better than his friend in merits. For example,
His merits are superior to his friend"s. The soldiers arrived. The mob dispersed.
3. Or : unless : — The soldiers having arrived, the mod dispersed.
Leave this room or I will compel you to do so. The town was enclosed by a strong wall. The en-
emy was unable to capture it.
Unless you leave this room, I will compel you to do so.
— The town having been enclosed by a strong wall,
4. Therefore : because :
the enemy was unable to capture it.
He was very tired and therefore feel asleep.
(v) By using an Infinitive
He fell asleep because he was very tired. For example,
5. Steal : rob : I have some duties. I must perform them.
He stole my money. — I have some duties to preform. We must finish
He robbed me of my money. this exercise. There are still three sentences.
6. Passed : failed : — We have still three sentences of this exercise to
He passed in all subject except mathematics. finish.
He failed only in mathematics. He wanted to educate his son. He sent him to
7. Twelve : twelfth : Canada.
— He sent his son to Canada to be educated.
I am twelve yyears old.
He is very fat. He cannot run.
I am in my twelfth year.
— He is too fat to run.
8. Twice : double :
(vi) By using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase
My bag is twice as bit as yours.
My bag is double the size of yours. He deserved to succeed. He failed.
9. Arrive : arrival : — He failed undeservedly.
Wait till I arrive. The sun set. The boys had not finished the game.
Wait till my arrival. — The boys had not finished the game by sunset.
Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a Combination of two or more Simple Sentences into a
single Simple Sentence : single Compound sentence
(i) By using a Participle Simple sentences may be combined to form compound
For example, sentences by the use of co-ordinative conjunctions. These
He jumped up. He ran away. are of four kinds :