AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Exclamatory : How beautiful is night! Active : They proposed to hold a meeting.
Assertive : Night is very beautiful. Passive : It was proposed by them that a meeting should
Exclamatory : How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this be held
bank! Active : They were conducting him to the chair.
Assertive : The moonlight very sweetly sleeps upon Passive : He was being conducted by them to the chair.
this bank. Active : The audience highly applauded his speech.
Exclamatory : O that I were young again! Passive : His speech was highly applauded.
Assertive : I wish that I were young again. Active : Brutus stabbed Caesar.
Exclamatory : Alas! that youth should pass away! Passive : Caesar was stabbed by Brutus.
Assertive : It is sad to think that youth should pass Active : The people will make him king
away. Passive : He will be made king by the people
Affirmative and Negative Sentences Affirmative into Active : Who taught you grammer?
Passive : By whom was grammar taught you?
Affirmative : He failed to notice me when he came in.
or By, whom were you taught grammar?
Negative : He did not notice me when he came in
Active : The king gave him a reward.
Affirmative : As soon as he came he made objections.
Passive : He was given a reward by the king.
Negative : No sooner did he come than he made
or, A reward was given him by King
Active : The Romans expected to conquer Carthage
Affirmative : Only the everning star has as yet ap-
peared. Passive : It was expected by the Romans that they would
Negative : None but the evening star has yet ap-
peared. Passive : It is time to shut up the shop
Affirmative : He was a man of some intelligence. Active : It is time for the shop to be shut up.
Negative : He was a man of no great intelligence Passive : The audience loudly cheered the Mayors
Affirmative : Kolkata is the biggest city in India.
Active : The Mayor’s speech was loudly cheered.
Negative : There is no other city in India as big as
Kolkata. or Passive into Active
There is no bigger city in India than Passive : The house had been deserted by those who
Kolkata. lived in it.
Negative into Affirmative Active : Those who lived in the house had deserted it.
Negative : I am not a little tired. Passive : I have been shocked at his conduct.
Affirmative : I am very tired. Active : His conduct has shocked me.
Negative : There is no rose without a thorn. Passive : John prayed to the judge that he might be
Affirmative : Every rose has a thorn. pardoned.
Negative : We did not find the road very bad. Active : John prayed that the judge might pardon him.
Affirmative : We found the road fairly good. Passive : Everybody was satisfied with him
Negative : There could be no smoke without fire. Active : He satisfied everybody.
Affirmative : Wherever there is smoke there in fire. Passive : Our purpose has been served.
Negative : None but a Hercules could do this. Active : It has served our purpose.
Affirmative : Only a Hercules could do this. Passive : Caves must be dug for them.
Negative : A good boy never neglects his lessons. Active : Others must dig caves from them.
Affirmative : A good boy alwasys minds his lessons. Passive : I was compelled to go.
Negative : No one can deny that he was a great man. Active : Circumstances compelled me to go.
Affirmative : Everybody must admit that he was a Passive : Police has arrested the thief.
great man. Active : The thief has been arrested.
Active into Passive Simple into Double or Multiple (Compound)
Active : They proposed to build a dam for irrigation Simple sentences may be converted into Compound
purposes. ones by enlarging Words or Phrases into Co-ordinate
Passive : It was proposed by them that a dam should clauses.
be built for irrigation purposes. Simple : Besides doing his own work, he helped me.
Active : The Curator of the Museum showed us some Compound : He not only did his own work, but also he
ancient coins. helped me.
Passive : We were shown some ancient coins by the Simple : Shifting himself along the arm, he rose to
Curator of the Museum. his feet.
Active : They laughed at him. Compound : He shifted himself along the arm and rose to
Passive : He was laughed at by them his feet.