AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
(i) Subject + propose / suggest + to + object + that (d) As per requirement, ‘should’ and ‘might’ are used
+ should + Verb1 + .... and alongwith them the usage of Verb1.
Example: Now following these rules, let us treat those sentences
You proposed / suggested to your friends that you given at the beginning of this topic.
should have exercise in the morning. (i) Father prayed that God might bless me.
(ii) Subject + propose / suggest + Verb (+ ing) + ... (ii) Granny wished / prayed that I might succeed in
Example: the examination.
You proposed / suggested having exercise in the morn- (iii) They wished / prayed that the king should live
Remember that, the construction: propose / suggest (iv) We wished / prayed that the earth should be saved
+ to + Verb1 is never used. by God from evil.
Therefore, if we say – She proposed to me to have
dinner outside – is wrong. INDIRECT NARRATION OF EXCLAMA-
We should say – She proposed to me that we should TORY SENTENCES
have dinner outside.
Here are a few rules on the context when ‘let’ is used Look at these sentences.
to refer ‘to allow’ in Indirect Narration. (i) Piyush said, “What a splendid beauty it is!”
Rules (ii) The coach said, “Well done! my players.”
(a) ‘say to’ and ‘said to’ are changed into order / or- (iii) Pankaj said, “Alas! I am undone.”
dered, request / requested, etc. according to the mean- (iv) The businessman said, “Ah! I am ruined.”
ing. A few inferences on Exclamatory sentences:
(b) The Reported Speech is started by using ‘to allow’. (a) Exclamatory sentence is used to express some-
thing wonderful or surprising. For expressing in Exclama-
(c) ‘To’ is used before the Principal Verb.
tory sentences – What / How / Alas / Ah / Oh / Hurrah,
Examples: etc. are used at the beginning of the sentence.
Direct Narration: Radha said to her boss, “Let me go (b) The sentence in Exclamatory sentence always re-
home as I am unwell.” mains Assertive (i.e. Subject + Verb).
Indirect Narration: Radha requested her boss to allow (c) The sing of exclamation (!) is used in Exclamatory
her to go home as she is unwell. sentences.
Direct Narration: The officer said to the guard, “Let There are certain rules used in Exclamatory sentence.
the beggar come in.” Rules
Indirect Narration: The officer ordered the guard (a) According to the meaning and intention, ‘said’ in
to allow the beggar to come in. the Reporting Speech of the sentence is changed into –
Note that, sometimes, ‘let’ is used as ‘to let’ in Indirect exclaimed with joy / exclaimed with sorrow / exclaimed
Speech. with grief / exclaimed with regret / shouted with applause
Example: / cried out, / eagerly wished, etc.
Direct Narration: Prakash said to his wife, “Let the (b) Replacing Inverted commas (“ ”), ‘that’ is used
children watch television.” before the Reported Speech.
Indirect Narration: Prakash ordered his wife to let the (c) As per requirement, sometimes the Verb is changed
children watch television. Or, into Tense.
Prakash told his wife that the children might be al- (d) At the end of the sentence, full stop (.) is used
lowed to watch television. replacing the sign of exclamation (!).
Now following these rules, let us treat those sentences
INDIRECT NARRATION OF OPTATIVE SENTENCES given at the beginning of this topic.
Look at these sentences. (i) Piyush exclaimed that it was a splendid beauty.
(i) Father said, “May God bless you.” (ii) The coach shouted with applause that you players
(ii) Granny said, “May you succeed in the examina- have done well.
tion.” (iii) Pankaj exclaimed with sorrow that he is undone.
(iii) They said, “Long live the king.” (iv) The businessman exclaimed with regret that he is
(iv) We said, “Lord save the earth from evil.” ruined.
Optative sentences is used to express wishes, de- MUST AND INDIRECT NARRATION
sires, curses, etc. Look at these sentences.
Rules (i) The teacher said, “We must love out country.”
(a) ‘said’ is changed into prayed / wished, etc. (ii) His grandpa said, “One must do one’s duty.”
(b) Inverted commas (“ ”) are removed and before the When, by the usage of ‘must’ it refers to ‘morality,
Reported Speech ‘that’ is used. ‘universality’, etc., no change does take place in the usage
(c) Reported Speech (where there is Verb + Subject) of ‘must’. Therefore, abiding by the rules of Indirect Nar-
is changed into Subject + Verb, i.e. made into Assertive ration, the Indirect Narration of the above given two sen-
sentence. tences would be –