AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Priyanka said to Rahul, “Why did you travel by train?” I would do this day.
Now, let us look at the rules. ̄ ̄
Rules Subject Verb
(i) ‘Say’ is changed into – enquire (of), want to know Note that, several silly problems are created on this
(of), etc. rule to vex students.
Direct Narration: Kaushik said to me, “Who teaches The guard of the company asked me who do I want to
you Maths?” meet in the office.
Indirect Narration: Kaushik wanted to know In this sentence, instead of ‘who do I want’, you should
̄ use ‘whom I wanted’.
‘Said’ is changed to ‘wanted to know’ The correct sentence will be –
who teaches me Maths. The guard of the company asked me whom I wanted
(ii) Inverted Commas (“ ”) are removed from the sen- to meet in the office.
tence. Remember these rules related to the example given
Direct Narration: Siddharth said to Ajay, (i) In Indirect Narration, the sentence is always in
“How did you learn to drive a car?” Assertive, therefore, the Assertive of ‘do I want’ will be ‘I
Indirect Narration: Siddharth enquired Ajay of how want’.
did he learn to drive a car. (ii) As the Reporting Verb ‘asked’ is in the Past Tense,
(Inverted Commas (“ ”) have been removed) therefore, there will also be the usage of Past Tense in the
Indirect Narration. Because of this reason, instead of ‘I
(iii) If there is the question in the Reported Speech
want’ it will be ‘I wanted’.
whose answer can come as “Yes” or “No”, we should use
‘if’ or “whether” before the Reported Speech. (iii) Instead of ‘who’ it will be ‘whom’; because, ‘who’
does the work of a Subject and ‘whom’ Object.
Direct Narration: Piyali said to Raju, “Do you know
the arrival time of Mumbai Rajdhani?” (iv) The sign of Interrogation (?) is replaced with a
Full Stop (.) in the sentence.
Indirect Narration: Piyali asked Raju if / whether he
knows the arrival time of Mumbai Rajdhani. Example:
(iv) But if there are ‘Wh’ – Question (beginning with – Direct Narration: Raja said to me, “Who have you
who / what / how / where / when / why, etc.) then visited in the morning?”
before the Reported Speech i.e., Interrogative word, there Indirect Narration: Raja asked you whom you had vis-
will be no usage of any Conjunction. ited in the morning.
Example: Remember that, at the end of the sentence in Direct
Direct Narration: You said to your sister, “What are Narration, there is always the sign of Interrogation (?),
you writing?” while at the end of sentence in Indirect Narration there is
Indirect Narration: You asked your sister what she always a Full Stop (.).
was writing. Now, let us follow these rules to implement their us-
Note that, problems are generally created in context age and try the first five sentences given at the beginning
to this rule, where ‘that’, ‘as to’, etc. are put before Inter- of this topic.
rogative words. (i) She asked me if / whether I was coming with her.
She asked me that how I got time to practice all these She wanted to know if I was coming with her.
sums. (ii) He asked me if / whether I go to school.
In this sentence, instead of ‘that how I got’, you should (iii) You asked me / wanted to know what I was plan-
use ‘how I got’; i.e., before the Interrogative word ‘how’ ning to do.
the usage of ‘that’ should not occur, which is wrong. (iv) Ranu asked Bhanu why he had been late.
The correct form of the sentence will be – (v) Priyanka wanted to know from Rahul why had he
She asked me how I got time to practice all these travelled by train.
sums. Remember that, when the Reporting Verb is in the
(v) The Reported Speech is changed into Assertive Past Tense and there is the presence of was / were in
sentence (i.e., the order of Verb + Subject is changed into Reported Speech, this was / were changes into ‘had been’.
Subject + Verb). INDIRECT NARRATION OF IMPERATIVE
Direct Narration: Lali said to me, “What
will you do today?” Look at the instincts of Imperative sentence.
(i) Imperative sentence is used for stating Order, Re-
̄ ̄ quest, Negative Command, etc.
Verb Subject (ii) Imperative sentence begins with the Principal Verb
Indirect Narration: Lali asked me what in the sentence, like – Go, Bring, Make, etc.