Indirect Narration: Saroj said that she                         Indirect Narration: Megha said that they
                                    ̄                                                                    ̄
                              Past Tense                                                        Past Tense
     was willing to there.                                            had been laughing in the class.
            ̄                                                                     ̄
     Past Imperfect
                                                                     Past Perfect Continuous
     (c) Present Perfect changes into Past Perfect Tense.
                                                                     (g) Like the various changes, ‘can’ changes into ‘could’,
                                                                ‘shall’ into ‘should’, ‘will’ into ‘would’, ‘may’ into ‘might’.
     Direct Narration: Manoj said, “I have bought
                                                                     Remember that:
                                   ̄             ̄
                                                                     (i) The expression in the sentence in Past Perfect and
                             Past Tense     Present Perfect
     a white shirt”.                                            Past Perfect Continuous Tense does not change at all.
     Indirect Narration: Manoj said that he had bought               (ii) If there is any Universal Truth or Habitual Truth
                                                                in the Reported Speech, there is no change in the Re-
                                     ̄                ̄
                                                                ported Speech.
                                Past Tense         Past Tense
     a white shirt.                                                  Examples:
     (d) Present Perfect Continuous changes into Past                Direct Narration: The teacher said, “The sun
Perfect Continuous Tense.                                                                                   ̄
     Example:                                                                                          Past Tense
     Direct Narration: Prayag said to me, “I                             is a star”.
                                   ̄                                       ̄
                             Present Tense                           Present Tense
     have been teaching in this school for six months.
                                                                     Indirect Narration: The teacher said that the
     Present Perfect Continuous Tense
     Indirect Narration: Prayag said to me that he                                                       Past Tense
                                                                     sun is a star.
                             Present Tense                                  ̄
     had been teaching in this school for six months.                Present Tense
                ̄                                                     Direct Narration: Mother said, “Cow gives milk”.
     Past Perfect Continuous Tense                                                               ̄                   ̄
     (e) Past Indefinite changes into Past Perfect Tense.                                  Past Tense         Present Tense
     Example:                                                        Indirect Narration: Mother said that cow gives milk.
     Direct Narration: You said, “She sent me a mail”.                                                 ̄                  ̄
                                ̄                 ̄                                                Past Tense        Present Tense
                        Past Tense Past Indefinite Tense
                                                                     4. Changes also occur in the Pronouns of the Reported
     Indirect Narration: You said that she had sent
                                                                Speech. These changes are according to a formula.
                                  ̄                 ̄
                           Past Tense      Past Perfect Tense               SON
                                                                     (a)              (This means, according to the First Per--
     me a mail.                                                             1 2 3
     t Note that, various problems related to these rules       son Subject, according to the Second Person Object and in
are asked in the examinations. Let us look at a few prob-       Third Person No change.)
lems.                                                                Examples:
     She told her servant that his work is not up to the mark.       Direct Narration: She said to me, “I am intelligent but
     In this Indirect Narration, instead of ‘is’, ‘was’ will be you are fool”.
used in the sentence. This is because, the Reporting Verb
                                                                     Indirect Narration: She said to me that she was intel-
‘told’ is in the Past Tense.
                                                                ligent but I was fool.
     Pressed by his students, the principal suddenly said
                                                                     Note that (I is First Person which according to the
that I am in no way responsible for the quarrel.
                                                                Subject she has changed into she; while, you is Second
     In this Indirect Narration, instead of ‘I am’, it will be
                                                                Person which, according to the Object me, has changed
‘he was’, because the Reporting Verb ‘told’ is in the Past
                                                                into I.)
                                                                     Direct Narration: You said to me, “She is honest”.
     (f) Past Imperfect changes into Past Perfect Continu-
ous Tense.                                                           Indirect Narration: You said to me that she was hon-
                                                                     Note that (He is Third Person, therefore, no change
     Direct Narration: Megha said, “They were laughing
                                                                has been in the sentence.)
                                   ̄                  ̄                (b) If ‘we’ is used for the sake of Universal Truth,
                              Past Tense       Past Imperfect   then this ‘we’ is not changed in the Indirect narration.
     in the class.                                                   Examples: