AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Indirect Narration: Saroj said that she Indirect Narration: Megha said that they
Past Tense Past Tense
was willing to there. had been laughing in the class.
Past Perfect Continuous
(c) Present Perfect changes into Past Perfect Tense.
(g) Like the various changes, ‘can’ changes into ‘could’,
‘shall’ into ‘should’, ‘will’ into ‘would’, ‘may’ into ‘might’.
Direct Narration: Manoj said, “I have bought
(i) The expression in the sentence in Past Perfect and
Past Tense Present Perfect
a white shirt”. Past Perfect Continuous Tense does not change at all.
Indirect Narration: Manoj said that he had bought (ii) If there is any Universal Truth or Habitual Truth
in the Reported Speech, there is no change in the Re-
Past Tense Past Tense
a white shirt. Examples:
(d) Present Perfect Continuous changes into Past Direct Narration: The teacher said, “The sun
Perfect Continuous Tense. ̄
Example: Past Tense
Direct Narration: Prayag said to me, “I is a star”.
Present Tense Present Tense
have been teaching in this school for six months.
Indirect Narration: The teacher said that the
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Indirect Narration: Prayag said to me that he Past Tense
sun is a star.
Present Tense ̄
had been teaching in this school for six months. Present Tense
̄ Direct Narration: Mother said, “Cow gives milk”.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense ̄ ̄
(e) Past Indefinite changes into Past Perfect Tense. Past Tense Present Tense
Example: Indirect Narration: Mother said that cow gives milk.
Direct Narration: You said, “She sent me a mail”. ̄ ̄
̄ ̄ Past Tense Present Tense
Past Tense Past Indefinite Tense
4. Changes also occur in the Pronouns of the Reported
Indirect Narration: You said that she had sent
Speech. These changes are according to a formula.
Past Tense Past Perfect Tense SON
(a) (This means, according to the First Per--
me a mail. 1 2 3
t Note that, various problems related to these rules son Subject, according to the Second Person Object and in
are asked in the examinations. Let us look at a few prob- Third Person No change.)
She told her servant that his work is not up to the mark. Direct Narration: She said to me, “I am intelligent but
In this Indirect Narration, instead of ‘is’, ‘was’ will be you are fool”.
used in the sentence. This is because, the Reporting Verb
Indirect Narration: She said to me that she was intel-
‘told’ is in the Past Tense.
ligent but I was fool.
Pressed by his students, the principal suddenly said
Note that (I is First Person which according to the
that I am in no way responsible for the quarrel.
Subject she has changed into she; while, you is Second
In this Indirect Narration, instead of ‘I am’, it will be
Person which, according to the Object me, has changed
‘he was’, because the Reporting Verb ‘told’ is in the Past
Direct Narration: You said to me, “She is honest”.
(f) Past Imperfect changes into Past Perfect Continu-
ous Tense. Indirect Narration: You said to me that she was hon-
Note that (He is Third Person, therefore, no change
Direct Narration: Megha said, “They were laughing
has been in the sentence.)
̄ ̄ (b) If ‘we’ is used for the sake of Universal Truth,
Past Tense Past Imperfect then this ‘we’ is not changed in the Indirect narration.
in the class. Examples: