AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
In this sentence, ‘I’ is the Subject; ‘work’ a Noun and Passive: Some money has to be lent by him.
‘to do’ is the Infinitive used after the Noun. The Subject ‘I’ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
is himself the doer of the ‘work’. Therefore, the Passive of Subject1 has to be Verb3 by Agent
this Infinitive cannot be made.
Note that, in some of the books, it has been stated Active: You have to choose a design.
that the Passive of ‘to be + Infinitive’ can be made. Like
Passive: A design has to be chosen by you.
– ‘to read’ can be made into ‘to be read’, which is wrong.
“If the subject of the sentence is the person who has PASSIVE OF STATIVE VERBS
to do the action, the active infinitive is used.” There are a few Verbs which instead of stating the
Example: action signifies the state of mind or feeling and which also
I have work to do. does not make use of ‘by’ after them and rather takes an
It is wrong to say – I have work to be done. Appropriate Preposition.
– Practical English Usage by Michael Swan Example:
Likewise, look at the examples below. Active: I know her.
I have two shirts to press. Passive: She is known to me.
It is wrong to say – ‘to be pressed’ Active: The trick of the magician amused me.
I have a poem to write. Passive: I was amused by the trick of the magician.
It is wrong to say – ‘to be written’ Look at a few Verbs along with the Prepositions used
C. Infinitive Passive is not allowed if there is a Noun + after them.
Infinitive after the Subject and also the action is being surprised at amazed at
done by another person. known to startled at
Example: vexed at annoyed with (somebody)
Kalidasa was a scholar to be admired. annoyed at (something) contained in
It is wrong to say – Kalidasa was a scholar to admire. included in embodied in
Note that, problems are often created in context to crammed with filled with
this rule. decorated with ornamented with
D. If the Subject of a sentence is a Noun or a Pronoun thronged with moved by
which does not do any action and rather any action can be Example:
performed on them then after those Noun or Pronoun there Active: She annoyed me.
is the usage of Passive Infinitive and not Active Infinitive. Passive: I was annoyed with her. (It is wrong to say
Examples: ‘by her’)
These colours are to be painted. Active: Your behaviour annoyed me.
It is wrong to say – ‘are to paint’ Passive: I was annoyed at your behaviour. (It is wrong
The scout is to be guided. to say ‘by your behaviour’)
It is wrong to say – ‘is to guide’ Note that, problems are often created in questions
E. Passive can be done of the construction – related to the usage of these Prepositions. So try to re-
There + To be + Noun + Infinitive member the usage of these Prepositions.
Example: Passive of Verb + Preposition + Object
Active: There is a lot of work to do. There are a few Verbs which takes a Preposition after
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ them before taking the Object.
The construction is as under.
There To be Noun Infinitive to Verb1
Subject + Verb + Preposition + Object
Passive: There is a lot of work to be done.
In order to create Passive of this construction, the
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ Preposition is kept intact with that Verb.
There To be Noun To be Verb3 Now look at the construction below.
Likewise, look at the other example. Subject1 + to be + Verb3 + Preposition + (by Agent)
Active: There are five rhymes to recite. Example:
Passive: There are five rhymes to be recited. Active: The CBI enquired into the case.
Therefore, after There + To be, there is the usage of
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Infinitive in both Active and Passive voice.
Subject Verb Preposition Object
Passive of ‘Have / Has / Had + To + Verb1’
Passive: The case was enquired into
Look at the construction.
Active: Subject + have / has / had + to + Verb1 + ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Object Subject1 To be Verb3 Preposition
Passive: Subject1 + have / has / had + to + be + by the CBI.
Verb3 + (by + Agent) ̄ ̄
Example: by Agent
Active: He has to lend some money. But, problems are generally created by removing the
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ Preposition after the Verb from such sentences in the Pas-
Subject has to Verb1 Object sive Voice.