In this sentence, ‘I’ is the Subject; ‘work’ a Noun and        Passive: Some money has to be lent             by   him.
‘to do’ is the Infinitive used after the Noun. The Subject ‘I’                      ̄            ̄     ̄     ̄    ̄     ̄      ̄
is himself the doer of the ‘work’. Therefore, the Passive of                  Subject1        has to be Verb3 by Agent
this Infinitive cannot be made.
     Note that, in some of the books, it has been stated            Active: You have to choose a design.
that the Passive of ‘to be + Infinitive’ can be made. Like
                                                                    Passive: A design has to be chosen by you.
– ‘to read’ can be made into ‘to be read’, which is wrong.
     “If the subject of the sentence is the person who has                   PASSIVE OF STATIVE VERBS
to do the action, the active infinitive is used.”                   There are a few Verbs which instead of stating the
     Example:                                                  action signifies the state of mind or feeling and which also
     I have work to do.                                        does not make use of ‘by’ after them and rather takes an
     It is wrong to say – I have work to be done.              Appropriate Preposition.
                – Practical English Usage by Michael Swan           Example:
     Likewise, look at the examples below.                          Active: I know her.
     I have two shirts to press.                                    Passive: She is known to me.
     It is wrong to say – ‘to be pressed’                           Active: The trick of the magician amused me.
     I have a poem to write.                                        Passive: I was amused by the trick of the magician.
     It is wrong to say – ‘to be written’                           Look at a few Verbs along with the Prepositions used
     C. Infinitive Passive is not allowed if there is a Noun + after them.
Infinitive after the Subject and also the action is being           surprised at                amazed at
done by another person.                                             known to                    startled at
     Example:                                                       vexed at                    annoyed with (somebody)
     Kalidasa was a scholar to be admired.                          annoyed at (something) contained in
     It is wrong to say – Kalidasa was a scholar to admire.         included in                 embodied in
     Note that, problems are often created in context to            crammed with                filled with
this rule.                                                          decorated with              ornamented with
     D. If the Subject of a sentence is a Noun or a Pronoun         thronged with               moved by
which does not do any action and rather any action can be           Example:
performed on them then after those Noun or Pronoun there            Active: She annoyed me.
is the usage of Passive Infinitive and not Active Infinitive.       Passive: I was annoyed with her. (It is wrong to say
     Examples:                                                 ‘by her’)
     These colours are to be painted.                               Active: Your behaviour annoyed me.
     It is wrong to say – ‘are to paint’                            Passive: I was annoyed at your behaviour. (It is wrong
     The scout is to be guided.                                to say ‘by your behaviour’)
     It is wrong to say – ‘is to guide’                             Note that, problems are often created in questions
     E. Passive can be done of the construction –              related to the usage of these Prepositions. So try to re-
     There + To be + Noun + Infinitive                         member the usage of these Prepositions.
     Example:                                                       Passive of Verb + Preposition + Object
     Active: There is a lot of work          to          do.        There are a few Verbs which takes a Preposition after
                  ̄       ̄            ̄        ̄              ̄    them before taking the Object.
                                                                    The construction is as under.
             There To be          Noun Infinitive to Verb1
                                                                    Subject + Verb + Preposition + Object
     Passive: There is a lot of work        to be     done.
                                                                    In order to create Passive of this construction, the
                   ̄      ̄            ̄          ̄          ̄      Preposition is kept intact with that Verb.
             There To be           Noun     To be      Verb3        Now look at the construction below.
     Likewise, look at the other example.                           Subject1 + to be + Verb3 + Preposition + (by Agent)
     Active: There are five rhymes to recite.                       Example:
     Passive: There are five rhymes to be recited.                  Active:    The CBI enquired into               the case.
     Therefore, after There + To be, there is the usage of
                                                                                   ̄           ̄             ̄            ̄
Infinitive in both Active and Passive voice.
                                                                                 Subject     Verb Preposition Object
     Passive of ‘Have / Has / Had + To + Verb1’
                                                                    Passive: The case      was enquired          into
     Look at the construction.
     Active: Subject + have / has / had + to + Verb1 +                             ̄          ̄            ̄           ̄
Object                                                                         Subject1    To be       Verb3   Preposition
     Passive: Subject1 + have / has / had + to + be +                 by   the CBI.
Verb3 + (by + Agent)                                                    ̄        ̄
     Example:                                                         by Agent
     Active: He          has to       lend     some money.          But, problems are generally created by removing the
                 ̄         ̄      ̄       ̄           ̄             Preposition after the Verb from such sentences in the Pas-
            Subject     has   to    Verb1       Object         sive Voice.