AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
What did she give? Active: Do / Does + Subject + Verb1 + Object?
We get the answer as – Passive: Am/Is/Are + Subject1 + Verb3 + by + Agent?
A book Example:
Hence, the answer ‘A book’ is the Direct Object. Active: Does he need some curry?
Again, if we ask question like – ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
To whom did she give the book? Does Subject Verb1 Object
We get the answer – Me Passive: Is some curry needed by him?
Here, ‘Me’ is the Indirect Object. ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
(c) There are a few Verbs which act as Mono and Di-
Is Subject1 Verb3 by Agent
(b) To change questions from Active to Passive begin-
ning with Did.
She told a fable.
Active: Did + Subject + Verb1 + Object?
̄ ̄ Passive: Was / Were + Subject1 + Verb3 + by + Agent?
Mono-Transitive Object Example:
She told me a fable. Active: Did he entertain you?
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Indirect Object Direct Object Did Subject1 Verb1 Object
(d) A few Verbs like – tell, give, appoint, make, prom- Passive: Were you entertained by him?
ise, elect, make, fetch, offer, present, lend, get, pay, sell,
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
bring, take, teach, promise, etc. can act both in the form of
Mono and Di-Transitive. Were Subject1 Verb3 by Agent
Now, look at the sentence which has two Objects (c) To change questions from Active to Passive begin-
and is Passive. You can do so – ning with Have / Has.
(i) By converting Indirect Object into Subject. Active: Have / Has / Had + Subject + Verb3 + Ob-
Passive: Have /Has / Had + Subject1 + been + Verb3
Active: He lent me some money.
+ by + Agent?
Passive: I was lent some money by him.
(ii) By converting Direct Object into Subject.
Active: Has Anuradha sang a song?
Active: He lent me some money.
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Passive: Some money was lent (to) by him. Has Subject Verb1 Object
Remember that, in order to convert a sentence into Passive: Has a song been written by Anuradha?
Passive having two Objects, generally the Indirect Object ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
is changed into Subject, which is thought of as the best Has Subject1 been Verb3 by Agent
option. But, it is wrong to take for guaranteed that it is (d) To change questions from Active to Passive begin-
incorrect to change Direct Object into Subject. Again, in ning with Modal Auxiliary Verbs.
such cases, the order of selecting the Subject in Passive Active: Modal + Subject + Verb1 + Object?
depends on whom we are giving importance to. Passive: Modal + Subject1 + be + Verb3 + by + Agent
PASSIVE OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES Example:
1. The questions are of two kinds – One that gives Active: Can you control this situation?
‘Yes’ answer and the other ‘No’. ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
The question that begins with a helping Verb like – Modal Subject Verb1 Object
does, do, did, has, have, is, are, am, can, could, may, Passive: Can this situation be controlled by you?
might, etc. and the answer of which is generally either Yes ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Modal Subject1 be Verb3 by him
(e) Passive of Wh-Questions
Question: Are you ready?
Here, by making the Passive of questions which an-
Answer: Yes, I am Or, No, I am not
swer in Yes / No and before which, Interrogative words
2. Questions with ‘Wh’ beginning with any of the In- are added and made into Wh-Questions.
terrogative words like – why, who, what, how, when,
where, etc. The answer to these question cannot be given
Active: Have you broken the glass?
in either ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, rather they can be answered by us-
ing a complete sentence. Passive: Has the glass been broken by you?
Example: Now, let us add Interrogative words before these Yes/
Question: Where do you live?
Active: Why have you broken the glass?
Answer: I live in East of Kailash.
Passive: Why has the glass been broken by you?
Look at the rules for Passive of Yes / No questions
(a) To change questions from Active to Passive begin- ̄ ̄
ning with Do / Does. Interrogative word Yes / No question