AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Likewise, t Note that, can, could, may, might, shall, should,
Active: The builder had built a mall. will, would, must, ought to, used to, need not, dare not,
Passive: A mall had been built by the builder. etc. are Modal Auxiliary Verbs.
Note that, no Passive formation is allowed in Past Per- Passive of Verbs with two Objects
fect Continuous Tense. There are a few Verbs which can take two Objects.
(g) Future Indefinite Example:
The construction of Active Voice here is – (i) She gave me some sweets.
Subject + shall / will + Verb11 + Object (ii) You appointed him manager.
The construction of Passive Voice here is – (iii) We elected him Chairman.
Subject1 + shall / will + be + Verb3 + (by + agent) (iv) They gave her offer letter.
Example: In these sentences above, you will find there are two
Active: She will complete it. Objects.
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
In sentence (i), ‘me’ and ‘some sweets’ are two Ob-
Subject will Verb1 Object jects.
Passive: It will be completed by her. In sentence (ii), ‘him’ and ‘manager’ are two Objects.
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ In sentence (iii), ‘him’ and ‘chairman’ are two Objects.
Subject1 will be Verb3 by Agent In sentence (iv), ‘her’ and ‘offer letter’ are two Ob-
Active: The minister will address the gathering. On careful observation of these sentences, you will
Passive: The gathering will be addressed by the min- note that in sentence (i), ‘me’ is the Indirect Object, while
ister. ‘some sweets’ is the Direct Object. Similarly, in sentences
Note that, no Passive formation is allowed in Future (ii), (iii) and (iv), ‘him’, ‘him’ and ‘her’ are Indirect Objects,
Imperfect Tense. while ‘manager’, ‘chairman’ and ‘offer letter’ are Direct Ob-
(h) Future Perfect jects, respectively.
Remember a few important facts.
The construction of Active Voice here is –
(a) Verbs which take only one Object are called Mono-
Subject + shall / will + have + Verb3 + Object
The construction of Passive Voice here is –
Subject1 + will / shall + have + been + Verb3 + (by
They refused you.
Example: ̄ ̄
Active: She will have bought a laptop. Mono-transitive Verb Object
Kavita likes you.
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄
Subject shall / will + have + Verb3 Object
Mono-transitive Verb Object
Passive: A laptop will have been bought by her.
(b) Verbs that take two Objects are called Di-Transi-
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ tive Verbs.
Subject1 will have been Verb3 by Agent Examples:
Likewise, He gifted me a bracelet.
Active: Jack will have completed the project in time.
̄ ̄ ̄
Passive: The project will have been completed by Jack
Di-Transitive Verb Indirect Object Direct Object
The manager offered me
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE OF MODAL VERBS ̄ ̄
The constructions in Active and Passive are as fol- Di-Transitive Verb Indirect Object
lows. an opportunity.
Active: Subject + modal + Verb1 + Object ̄
Passive: Subject1 + modal + be + Verb3 + (by + agent) Direct Object
Example: Remember that, when a Verb is used in the form of
Active: You can sing this song. Di-Transitive, it takes two Objects as you could see in the
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ examples above. In these Objects, the one which refers to
‘thing’ or which gives the answer when a question is asked
Subject modal Verb1 Object)
using ‘what’ is the Direct Object, while the other Object
Passive: This song can be sung by you.
which refers to ‘person’ or which gives the answer when a
̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ ̄ question is asked using ‘to whom’ is called the Indirect
Subject1 can be Verb3 by Agent Object.
Active: You must finish it. She gave me a book.
Passive: It must be finished by you. Here, if we ask question as –