AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
For example Examples : I will dismiss him.
He is talking. If you go, you shall be punished.
I was writing. He shall not be excused.
The door was opened. Principal (c) Command Shall Shall
Have is used in the formation of the perfect tenses. (Principal Verbs)
For example Examples : You shall not go.
She has done. Monday shall be a holiday.
She has been doing. Shall he wait ?
Do is used :
(1) To form the negative and interrogative of the
present simple and past simple tenses of non- VOICE
He doesn"t talk. Voice is the form of the Verb which shows whether
He didn"t do. the Subject acts or is acted upon.
Does she talk? Example:
Did she do? Sheila writes an e-mail.
(2) To avoid repetition of a previous ordinary Verb. (From this example, we understand that the Subject
For example in the sentence is ‘Sheila’ who is doing some work.)
Do you know her? Yes I do. An e-mail is written by Sheila.
She sings well. Yes, she does. (Again, from this sentence, we understand that some
You called him, didn"t you? work is going on with the Subject ‘An e-mail’.)
He eats apples and so do you. Kinds of Voice
(3) Do is also used to emphasize the affirmative na- There are two kinds of voice :
ture of a statement. 1. Active Voice – When the Subject of the sentence is
For example the doer or actor, the Verb is Active and said to be in
You do go there. Active Voice.
I told me not to do, but he did do. Examples:
(4) Used is followed by the infinitive to. Used to is He runs. I did it.
used to express a discontinued habit. He said this. She helped me.
For example They did all the work.
I used to live there during 1980s. 2. Passive Voice – When the Subject of the sentence
There used to be a house there. Used to is an is acted upon, the Verb is Passive and is said to be in
anomalous Verb. Passive Voice.
The Use of Shall and Will Examples:
To express 1st 2nd 3rd It was done by me.
Auxiliary 1. Simple shall will will This was said by him.
Future in The letter was posted.
Assertive The thief was arrested.
The sun was covered by cloud.
There is also another kind of Voice called Mid-Voice or
Examples : I shall go home.
Quasi-Passive. The peculiarity of this Voice is that, although
You will reach late.
it is Active in form, it is Passive in meaning.
He will go last.
Auxiliary 2.Simple shall will will
Candy tastes sweet.
(It means, candy is sweet when tasted.)
Iron feels hard.
(Aux. Verbs) (It means, iron is hard when it is felt.)
Examples : Shall I go now ? Oil feels greasy.
Will you go now ? (It means, oil is greasy when felt or touched.)
Will he see me ? There are certain rules associated with changing the
Principal 3. (a) Promise, Will Shall Shall Active Voice into Passive Voice.
RULES FOR CHANGING ACTIVE VOICE
Examples : I Will help you. INTO PASSIVE VOICE
You shall have my help. 1. The Object of the Active is changed into Subject of
He shall have his dues. the Passive.
Principal (b) Threat Will Shall Shall 2. The Subject of the Active is changed into Object of
(Princ. Verbs) the Passive.