AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
You ought to know more about this matter. (4) Used is followed by the infinitive to. Used to is
(ii) Strong probability. used to express a discontinued habit.
For example For example
Rakhee ought to win the game. I used to live there during 1980s.
The film ought to win a prize. There used to be a house there. Used to is an
Note : Ought was originally used in the Past tense, anomalous Verb.
but it is now used only in the Present tense. The Use of Shall and Will
Need not, Dare not To express 1st 2nd 3rd
Need is commonly used in negatives, which denote Auxiliary 1. Simple shall will will
necessity or obligation. Future in
For example Assertive
He need not go there. (It was not necessary sentences
for him to go.) (Aux. Verbs)
I need not have bought it. (It was not neces- Examples : I shall go home.
sary for me to buy it, but I bought it.) You will reach late.
Dare is generally used in negative sentences, meaning He will go last.
be brave enough to. Auxiliary 2.Simple shall will will
For example Future in
He dare not take such a step? Interrogative
He dared not do it. sentences
Note : (i) If a Verb is used immediately after a Modal (Aux. Verbs)
Auxiliary, that Verb must be always in the first form.
Examples : Shall I go now ?
(ii) If infinitive is used after a Modal Auxiliary, that
Will you go now ?
infinitive must be a bare infinitive.
Will he see me ?
Besides the modal auxiliaries, there are also some spe-
cial Verbs or anomalous like : Principal 3. (a) Promise, Will Shall Shall
Be Have Do Used determination
Be used in the formation of the continuous tenses and (Principal Verbs)
of the passive voice. Examples : I Will help you.
For example You shall have my help.
He is talking. He shall have his dues.
I was writing. Principal (b) Threat Will Shall Shall
The door was opened. (Princ. Verbs)
Have is used in the formation of the perfect tenses. Examples : I will dismiss him.
For example If you go, you shall be punished.
She has done. He shall not be excused.
She has been doing. Principal (c) Command Shall Shall
Do is used : (Principal Verbs)
(1) To form the negative and interrogative of the Examples : You shall not go.
present simple and past simple tenses of non- Monday shall be a holiday.
anomalous Verbs. Shall he wait ?
For example Shall, Should
He doesn"t talk. Shall is used in the first person to express pure future.
He didn"t do. For example
Does she talk? I shall do this work.
When shall we visit the zoo?
Did she do?
Shall I do it for you?
(2) To avoid repetition of a previous ordinary Verb. Tomorrow we shall meet our uncle.
For example Shall is used to express command, desire, promise or
Do you know her? Yes I do. threat etc. in second and third person.
She sings well. Yes, she does. For example
You called him, didn"t you? Shall you go tomorrow? (desire).
He eats apples and so do you. He shall not enter my house (command).
(3) Do is also used to emphasize the affirmative na- You shall have a surprise tomorrow (promise).
ture of a statement. You shall be punished for unfair means in ex-
For example amination (threat).
Shall he post the letter?
You do go there.
(is it your desire that he will post the letter?)
I told me not to do, but he did do.